Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Christopher Columbus Biography

Columbus is one of the most important persons in history, dividing history as the Pre-Columbian and the Columbian era. Columbus was a visionary, a man who challenged his times. He discovered America, the New World, in 1492.

Name: Columbus’ original name is Cristoforo Colombo. He changed his name into Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. “Christopher Columbus” is the anglicized name. [1]

Parents: Columbus’ parents were Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver, and Susanna Fontanarossa. [2] 

Columbus’ Siblings: Bartholomew Columbus, Giovanni Pellegrino (who died young), Giacomo Columbus, better known as Diego, and one sister named Bianchinetta Columbus. [3]

Birth: Columbus was born between August 25 and the end of October 1451, in Genoa, Italy. [4]

Death: Columbus died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid, Spain, age c. 54. [5] 

Spouse (s): Columbus was married to Filipa Moniz Perestrelo around 1479 until her death in Portugal. [6] Beatriz Enríquez de Arana became Columbus' mistress around 1486-1487 in Spain. [7]

Children: Columbus had two children. One was Diego Columbus, probably born in 1480 from his marriage with Filipa, and Fernando (Ferdinand or Hernando) whose mother was Beatriz. He was born in August 1488. [8]

Purpose: The purpose of Columbus’ explorations was to find another route to the Indies (Asia) by going west, crossing the Atlantic Ocean, instead of sailing around the African continent, or going by land, which was dangerous due to the enmity between Christian Europe and Muslim countries. Columbus promised to bring spices, pearls, gold, and to spread Christianity to the newly discovered lands. [9]

Columbus made Four Voyages:

First Voyage- 1492-1493.
Second Voyage- 1493-1496.
Third Voyage- 1498-1500.
Fourth Voyage- 1502-1503.

Columbus discovered:

First Voyage:
San Salvador (Guanahani) on October 12, 1492.
Juana (Cuba) on October 28, 1492.
Hispaniola or La Española (today’s Haiti/Dominican Republic) on December 5, 1492.

Second Voyage:
Dominica on November 3, 1493.
Santa María la Galante (Marie-Galante) on November 3, 1493.
Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura (Guadalupe) on November 4, 1493.
San Juan Bautista (Puerto Rico) on November 19, 1493.
Saona in May 1494.
Jamaica in May 1494.
Also, Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Sint Eustatius, Saba, San Martín (Saint Martin), Santa Cruz (Saint Croix), Virgin Gorda, Tortola, San Pedro (Saint Peter). He charted Martinique in 1493 as well.

Third Voyage:
Trinidad on July 31, 1498.
Venezuela in South America.
El Caracol (Chacachacare).
Bella Forma (Tobago).
Concepción (Grenada).

Fourth Voyage:
Isla de Pinos (Guanaja) in 1502.
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panamá in Central America.
Las Tortugas (Cayman Islands) on May 10, 1503.

Early Life:

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. [10] He later moved to Portugal after a ship he worked on (probably) as a sailor, was attacked by corsairs. Ships from both sides caught on fire, but Columbus survived by clinging to an oar swimming toward the Portuguese shore. Later Columbus met his future wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo in a church. [11]

Columbus made his first voyage proposal to João II or John II, King of Portugal. The king declined Columbus’ offer but secretly sent a ship anyway. Columbus found out and left Portugal angry. He went to Spain with his son Diego, as his wife Filipa was dead by now, to pursue his dream. [12]

He arrived in Spain around 1484 or 1485 and made his proposal to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel, which in turn delegated a council to hear his offer. The council rejected Columbus’ proposal, saying it was “vain” and “impossible,” as they laughed and scorned him for his ideas. However, the queen was interested in Columbus’ vision, but he had to wait seven years for an answer due to the monarchs’ constant wars against the Moors. [13]

In the meantime, Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to the King of England just in case Spain said “no” to him. Eventually, the Spanish Sovereigns denied Columbus’ offer, so he decided to go to France instead. Queen Isabel changed her mind and sent for Columbus to come back, and in 1492 he went with three caravels, La Pinta, La Niña and La Santa María, to the New World. [14]

First Voyage

Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, on August 3, 1492. He had to stop at the Canary Islands to repair one of the ships. [15] After taking provisions, he left on September 6, 1492. From there it took him 36 days to reach the New World. Columbus sailed through uncharted waters. 

Going west from Europe to the other side of the world was something people would not dare to do in those days, which is why some of the sailors were crying when they left the port. This is the reason why Columbus kept false entries in his journal, so the superstitious crew would not know how far they were away from Europe. [16]

After a few days the sailors threatened Columbus’ life saying if he would not turn back home, they would throw him off overboard and claim he fell by accident. Columbus calmed their fears and continued the voyage. [17]

The first person to sight land was Rodrigo de Triana. Though there was a reward to the first person to sight land, the King and Queen of Spain chose to reward Columbus instead, judging he saw the light of the land first. [18]

The discovery happened on October 12, 1492. Columbus took possession of the island for Spain and named it “San Salvador” (Holy Savior). There has been debate over where San Salvador is. Only Columbus knew where it was. He kept it secret because of his experience with the King of Portugal, who tried to steal his idea of discovery before. Guanahani is the native and the present-day name of the island that is believed to be San Salvador. [19]

The natives they found in the Caribbean were naked, timid and friendly. He perceived they were good people and intelligent enough to become Christians. Columbus gave them gifts and traded with them everywhere he went. Back then there were no maps of where they were, so Columbus initially took some of them by force to serve as guides. [20]

Since some of them escaped, Columbus changed his approach by taking them first, then, giving them gifts, and then letting them go. Columbus did not know their language and the natives did not know his. By doing this, the natives understood Columbus’ intentions were good, and voluntarily chose to go with him as guides, and as proof to Spain that he really went to the Indies. [21] In addition, the natives believed Columbus came from Heaven to save them from the attacks of the Caribs, who constantly attacked them and killed them. [22] 

The Caribs were cannibals and the word “cannibal” derived from the word “Carib,” “Caniba,” “Cariba” or “Caribe” as the Caribbean Sea. “Carib” is an Indigenous word that means “brave ones” and/or “fearless.”  

In November, Captain Martín Alonso Pinzón left the expedition out of greed, to seek gold by himself. [23] Later, the Santa María caravel accidentally shipwrecked in Hispaniola on Christmas, December 25, 1492. Due to the kindness of the local chief (Guacanagarí), by helping save the cargo, Columbus promised him, as his ally, he would get rid of the Caribs for him on his next voyage. Columbus built a fort with the wood of the shipwrecked caravel and left 39 men on the island. [24]

A few days later they found Captain Pinzón and they returned to Spain in the remaining two ships. [25] On the way back they faced several storms and thought they were going to die. One storm drove Columbus’ ship to Portugal. The King of Portugal met with him and lamented he had not given Columbus a chance. Columbus soon returned to Spain where he was received as a hero. [26]

Second Voyage

The King and Queen of Spain confirmed Columbus’ privileges, rights, and titles, as governor of the lands discovered and Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Columbus left Europe to return to the New World in October 1493 with 17 ships and 1,200 people. Columbus started his second voyage by rescuing the natives, also known as the Taínos, from the hands of the Caribs, as promised to Chief Guacanagarí. However, when Columbus reached Hispaniola, he found his 39 men dead. The Spaniards did not obey Columbus’ orders to stay together and respect the natives, and a rival chief named Caonabó killed the men and burned chief Guacanagarí's village down. Guacanagarí tried to defend the Spaniards but failed. [27]

Columbus decided to go to another part of the island and settle there. They founded a town named “Isabella” in honor of Queen Isabel of Spain. Caonabó kept harassing Columbus and his people, trying to kill them as he did with the other Spaniards before. [28]

Columbus left Hispaniola to keep exploring, trying to reach the mainland. He returned to Hispaniola sick and found the land in turmoil. The Spaniards once again had disobeyed Columbus’ orders to respect the natives, and some chiefs started to kill the Spaniards in retaliation. Columbus arrested some of the chiefs to stop the bloodshed and took some natives as prisoners. Because of these events, Caonabó had the support he sought for wih other chiefs to fight Columbus, with the exception of Guacanagarí who remained Columbus’ ally. In turn, Guacanagarí asked Columbus to help him fight Caonabó because he killed one of his wives and another chief kidnapped another one of them (chiefs were allowed to have more than one wife). The chiefs gathered an army of 100,000 natives, against 200 of Columbus’ men, with Chief Guacanagarí’s by his side. Columbus defeated them, sold some of them as slaves and made the rest to pay tribute. All these were the customs of war back then. [29]

During this second voyage, many colonists died of hunger and sickness, while others returned to Spain, upset things did not turn out the way they had expected. Many of them came to get rich quick, just to find out that work was hard. Columbus decided to go back to Spain to recruit new colonists, bring supplies and defend his cause before the monarchs, against the slanders of some envious men. [30]

Third Voyage

Columbus wanted to start his third voyage immediately to bring the supplies to the colonists who stayed on Hispaniola, but the affairs of the court delayed the voyage a year. [31] Columbus set sail with six vessels loaded with provisions and other things needed to relieve the settlers on May 30, 1498. On June 19th, Columbus rescued two Spanish ships from French corsairs. On June 21st, 1498, he sent three of his ships to Hispaniola while he went to search for the mainland. [32]

It is on this voyage that he reached the South American continent. There he questioned the shape of the Earth. He believed the Earth was round, “but of the form of a pear, which is very round except where the stalk grows, at which part it is most prominent; or like a round ball, upon one part of which is a prominence like a woman’s nipple.” Columbus also thought he was close to the Terrestrial Biblical Paradise. [33]  These opinions might have been influenced by The Travels of Sir John Mandeville which made similar claims. After exploring South America, Columbus returned to Hispaniola to find it in revolt. During his absence, some colonists died, while more of the one hundred and sixty survivors were sick with the “French sickness” or syphilis. In addition, a man named Francisco Roldán rebelled against Columbus’ brothers’ authority and started a rebellion. Outnumbered, Columbus and his brothers submitted to Roldán and his confederates’ demands while at the same time Columbus sent secret letters to the queen reporting the rebellion and how the Spaniards were mistreating the natives. In the meantime, the queen decided to send Francisco de Bobadilla to Hispaniola to investigate the complaints made by the rebels against Columbus and his brothers. 

Bobadilla arrived at Hispaniola and took the testimony of the rebels as “evidence” without any investigation. This document was lost but was found in 2000s. [34] The accusations were false. Bobadilla arrested Columbus and his brothers without due process, without telling them why. He also confiscated Columbus’ property and took the governorship for himself. Columbus was sent to Spain in chains, but the Sovereigns immediately cleared him of the charges because they did not believe the accusations and lamented they had sent Bobadilla to the island. Meanwhile, the king and queen removed Bobadilla from office, arrested Roldán and his confederates and promised Columbus his property and titles back. [35]

Fourth Voyage

The fourth voyage is the most epic of all. Columbus took one of his sons (Ferdinand) with him on this voyage. He was 13 years old. The purpose of this voyage was to explore the coast of the continent until he found a strait to India. Columbus initiated this voyage by helping rescue a Portuguese ship from the attacks of Moor enemies in 1502. 

Columbus was told by the queen to not make a stop in Hispaniola, but he was forced to do so because one of his ships was in poor condition and he needed to trade it for a better one. The new governor of the island, Nicolás de Ovando, denied him access. Columbus predicted that a hurricane was on the way there, but no one believed him. The hurricane came and destroyed some Spanish ships that were heading to Spain, with Columbus’ enemies in it, including Bobadilla, Roldán and the rest of the rebels. Most of Columbus’ enemies died, but the ship carrying money owed to Columbus arrived safely to Spain. Some believed this was Divine judgment, while others claimed it was a curse spelled by Columbus using “magic arts.” [36]

Columbus explored the continent again, this time in Central America. [37] He and his crew were caught in a terrible storm and a waterspout passed between two of their ships, which was dissolved when the sailors were reciting the Gospel of John. After the storm, the ships were surrounded by sharks, which some thought were a sign of a “bad omen.” Columbus and his crew rested in a harbor for a few days and then went sailing. They faced more storms but eventually reached Veragua, where they met with the local chief whom they called the Quibian. [38]

Columbus decided to return to Spain to bring supplies and reinforcements and left his brother Bartholomew in charge, to settle and conquer the land. [39] The Quibian, in turn, sent the Spaniards to what they believed was the gold mines of Veragua, but later they learned the Quibian purposely sent them to enemy land. Later the Quibian planned to set fire to the houses of the Spaniards and kill them in a surprise attack. Once they discovered the conspiracy, Bartholomew Columbus decided to ambush the Quibian in a preemptive strike, taking him and some of his people as hostages. However, the Quibian escaped and attacked the Spaniards, killing some and wounding others. Columbus was still in Veragua, when the surviving Spaniards escaped and were able to flee the land with him.

Columbus’ ships were leaking so he was not able to reach Spain and was forced to abandon one of the ships. He tried to reach Hispaniola, but he ended up marooned in Jamaica. [40] Columbus sent Diego Méndez and Bartolomeo Fieschi in canoes from Jamaica to Hispaniola to request a rescue ship for them. Columbus would not let the Spaniards disperse in Jamaica because he knew they were disrespectful and would harass the natives even if they were punished. Eventually, a mutiny broke with the Porras brothers as the leaders. The mutineers went to steal from the natives and told them to collect their pay from the Admiral (Columbus) and authorized them to kill him if he would not pay. Because of this, the natives stopped bringing food to Columbus and his allies at a time they were starving. Columbus told the natives God was angry at them for neglecting to bring food, which they were paying for. As a sign, God would make the moon rise inflamed with wrath in the night. Columbus was referring to an eclipse he knew was going to happen that night. When the natives saw the eclipse, they begged Columbus to pray to his God to make it go away. They apologized to him and brought him food for the rest of his stay.

Meanwhile, Columbus proposed peace with the Spanish mutineers, but they tried to kill his brother, Bartholomew, who in turn, defeated them in a fight and arrested the rest of them. Afterward, Governor Ovando sent a ship to Jamaica, but not to rescue Columbus, but to spy on him, out of fear, thinking Columbus might become governor of Hispaniola in his place. Eventually, Ovando sent the help they needed, and Columbus and the crew were rescued. 

When Columbus arrived in Spain, he learned the queen had died, which caused him great sadness. His property was still confiscated, his rights and privileges suspended, even though the Spanish government promised them back. Columbus died one year after the queen's death. He died sick and depressed on the day of the Ascension of Christ, May 20, 1506, after receiving the sacraments of the church. His last words were the last words of Christ on the cross: “In your hands, I commit my spirit.” [41]


According to Columbus’ son, Ferdinand, Columbus was well built, tall, with a long face, cheeks somewhat high, his body neither fat or lean, he had an aquiline nose, clear eyes, he was white, tending to bright red, and blonde hair when he was young, but when he reached thirty years old, his hair turned all white. 


“In eating and drinking, and in the adornment of his person, he was very moderate and modest. He was affable in conversation with strangers and very pleasant to the members of his household, though with a certain gravity.” [42]

Columbus was described as “patient, long-suffering, prone to forgive injuries... a man of courageous soul and high aspirations, always pervaded with infinite confidence in Divine Providence and never failing in loyalty to the sovereigns whom he served.” [43] 

Columbus had been considered the best sailor of his times, by both, his contemporaries and in modern times. Bartolomé de las Casas said, “Columbus was the most outstanding sailor in the world.” Scholar and sailor Samuel Eliot Morison said, “As a master mariner and navigator, Columbus was supreme in his generation.” [44]


At a time of much illiteracy, Columbus knew how to read and write. He was talented in calligraphy, he knew Latin, he studied arithmetic, he was skillful in drawing. He acquired “proficiency in geometry, geography, cosmography, astrology or astronomy, and seamanship.” Furthermore, he could speak the languages of Genoa, Castile, and Portugal. [45] 


Columbus was a Christian. He believed God chose him to spread Christianity to the New World. His son Ferdinand described him as “so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order. He was so great enemy of swearing and blasphemy that I give my word I never heard him utter any other oath than ‘by St. Ferdinand!’ ” Bartolomé de las Casas similarly stated that Columbus “confessed and received communion frequently; he recited the canonical hours like an ecclesiastic or a monk... he was most devoted to Our Lady and to the seraphic Father, St. Francis… most jealous of the Divine honor, eager and desirous for the conversion of these [Indigenous] peoples, and that the faith of Jesus Christ should be everywhere spread, and singularly given and devoted to God that he might be made worthy to help in some way to win the Holy Sepulcher.” There were a few times when Columbus dressed as a monk. [46] 

Flat Earth and other Myths

Though most educated people believed the Earth was round, its shape was not a settled argument. Though Columbus was not trying to prove the Earth was round, he decided to cross the ocean because the Earth is round. Columbus believed the Earth was smaller than it is, while the Spanish council believed it was bigger. The council believed Columbus would fail because if the Earth was bigger, and covered with water, his ships soon would run out of provisions, and everyone would die. Though Columbus’ opinion was contrary to the theories of most of the ancients, he was influenced by respected cosmographers who believed the Earth was smaller, including Pliny, Ptolemy, and Paolo Toscanelli, who was his contemporary. [47] 

The Spanish council was right that the Earth was bigger than what Columbus thought, but Columbus was right that he could reach land on the other side in a short period of time, as he did. Neither Columbus, nor the Spanish council, or the ancient cosmographers of the past, knew there was a continent between Europe and Asia. Maps back then would end with “Thule” (i.e. Iceland/Greenland). It seems that no one would dare to purposely pass it. Not even the Vikings. The reason why Viking Leif Erikson reached Vinland, in North America, was because he lived in Greenland, and one day he “was tossed about a long time out at sea, and [accidentally] lighted upon lands of which before he had no expectation.” [48] Neither he, nor his companions, knew where they were. According to scholar Paolo Emilio Taviani, they probably thought they were still somewhere in Europe. [49] It is important to note though, that the sagas telling these stories about Leif Erikson are ambiguous and vague.

The Spanish council believed in a number of myths in regard to the Earth as well. Some of them believed “the world was infinite and that would be impossible to reach the eastern limits even after years of sailing… They quoted... [that] the ancient doubt as to whether the ocean was navigable... or in the event it was navigable, whether one was likely to find land on the other side; but if there were land, it was unlikely it was inhabited; but if it were uninhabited, it was unlikely that one could set out to find it… Those who professed to know more... maintained that only a small body of land in the southern hemisphere was left uncovered because the rest was under water; therefore, it was possible to sail only along coast lines… And they [the Spanish council] said more: sailing straight West, as Columbus planned, would mean one could never return, for supposing the world were round, going West was sinking downhill out of the hemisphere described by Ptolemy; it would be necessary to return uphill, which is something ships cannot do…” [50] 


The word Discover never meant “the first person to find desolate land” in Columbus’ historical context. Rather it means Columbus discovered a continent people from the Old World did not know existed back then. The New World was not on the maps until Columbus had discovered it.


Revisionists usually claim Columbus’ legacy is either mixed or negative because of the interaction of natives and Europeans regarding war, conquest, and slavery. Revisionists omit that war, conquest, and slavery were universal and were practiced by Indigenous people as well, but with the addition of cannibalism and human sacrifices.

Columbus’ legacy is positive. Today we are here in the New World because of him. He discovered a continent the Old World didn't know existed. Columbus was the one who brought two different worlds back together after hundreds of years of lost communication. Columbus also imported Christianity, the Judeo-Christian values and the ideas of Western civilization rooted in Greek democracy and Roman law. It is men of faith, reason, and Western values who soon brought us freedom of worship, freedom of expression and human rights. Before Columbus, slavery was universal and practiced for thousands of years before him. But it was abolished 363 years after his discovery because of the values he brought here. Not to mention the advancement of science and medicine, curing or treating the diseases that were plaguing both sides of the world for millennia.

Bibliography and Primary Sources:

1. The Voyage of Christopher Columbus, Columbus’ Own Journal of Discovery. Newly Restored and Translated by John Cummins. St. Martin’s Press New York, 1992.
2. Writings of Christopher Columbus, Descriptive of the Discovery and Occupation of the New World. Charles L. Webster & Co. New York, 1890.
3. The Book of Prophecies Edited by Christopher Columbus. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1997.
4. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand. Translated and Annotated by Benjamin Keen. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey 1992.
5. De Orbe Novo. The Eight Decades of Peter Martyr D'Anghiera. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London The Kníckerbocker Press, 1912.
6. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas. Translated and Edited by Andree M. Collard. Harper Torchbooks Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Evanston, and London, 1971.
7. Historia de las Indias, Escrita por Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Obispo de Chiapa, Imprenta de Miguel Ginesta, 1875.
8. Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos, en las Islas, y Tierra-Firme de el Mar Oceano. Escrita por Antonio de Herrera.
9. Historia de los Reyes Católicos, Crónica inédita del siglo XV, por El Bachiller Andrés Bernáldez. Tomo I. Imprenta y librería de D. José Alaria Zamora, 1856.
10. Historia General y Natural de las Indias, Isla y Tierra-Firme del Mar Océano por El Capitán Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. Primer Cronista del Nuevo Mundo. Imprenta de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1851.


1. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 1.
2. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch. I, p. 17.
3. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Ch. II, p. 11.
4. Ibid, p. 7.
5. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 108, p. 284.
6. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch. XX, p. 103. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Ch. 4, Book One, p. 19.
7. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch. XXX-VII, p. 187.
8. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Ch. IV, p. 38. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch.  XXXVII, p. 187.
9. De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, Volume One, The First Decade, Book I, p. 57. The Voyage of Christopher Columbus by Cummins Prologue, p. 81.
10. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Ch. 3, p. 15; De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, p. 57; Historia de los Reyes Católicos by Andrés Bernáldez, Tomo I, Cap.  CXVIII, p. 269; Historia General by Herrera, Década I, Libro I, Cap. VII, p. 11; Historia General y Natural by Oviedo, Cap. II, p. 12. Also, Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Notes to Chapter 1 His Birth: Fables, Disputes and Documents, p. 223. 
11. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 5, pp. 13-14. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch. X, p. 60.
12. Ibid, Ch. 11, pp. 35-37. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Ch. 29, pp. 24-25.
13. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 12, pp. 37-40. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Ch. 29, pp. 24-31.
14. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 13-15.
15. Ibid, Chapters 16-17.
16. Ibid, Ch. 18.
17. Ibid, Ch. 20.
18. Ibid, Ch. 22. Columbus’ Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492, from The Voyage of Christopher Columbus by Cummins.
19. Historia General de las Indias by López de Gomera, Tomo I, Cap. XVI, p. 43. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 26, p. 66.
20. Columbus’ Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492, from The Voyage of Christopher Columbus by Cummins.
21. Ibid, October 15, November 29, December 3, 12, 13, 16, 1492.
22. Ibid, October 14, 1492. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 25.
23. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 30, p. 74.
24. Ibid, Chapter 34, p. 85. Columbus’ Journal, Tuesday, December 25, 1492, from The Voyage of Christopher Columbus by John Cummins.
25. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 35, p. 87.
26. Ibid, Chapters 36-42. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Ch. 78, pp. 37-40.
27. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 43-50.
28. Ibid, Chapters 51-53.
29. Ibid, Chapters 54-61.
30. Ibid, Ch. 63.
31. Ibid, Ch. 65.
32. Ibid, Ch. 66.
33. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, p. 134. and 141. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 68-73.
34. Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean.
35. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Fer-dinand, Chapters 74-87. Columbus sending secret letters source: Historia de las Indias by Las Casas, Lib. I, Tomo II, Cap. CLIX, p. 360.
36. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 88.
37. Ibid, Chapters 89-93.
38. Ibid, Ch. 94.
39. Ibid, Ch. 95.
40. Ibid, Chapters 96-100.
41. Ibid, Chapters 101-108.
42. Ibid, Ch. 3, p. 9.
43. Ibid, Ch. 3, p. 9. Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Cap. II. 
44. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Ch. 3, p. 17. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Ch. XLIII, p. 213.
45. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Ch. 3, p. 15.
46. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Ch. 3, p. 9. Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Cap. II. Also, The Book of Prophecies by Christopher Columbus.
47. De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, p. 65. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 6-8.
48. The Saga of Eirik the Red, Chapter. “Eirik's family, and his son Leif's discovery of Vinland,” pp. 23- 24. 
49. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XVI, p. 90.
50. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Ch. 29, pp. 26-28.