If not the most important, he is one of the most important persons in history, dividing history like Jesus Christ (B.C. and A.C.) as the Pre-Columbian era and the Columbus era. Columbus was a visionary; a man who challenged his times. Columbus discovered America, the New World, in 1492.
Name: Columbus original name is Cristoforo Colombo. He changed his name into Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. "Christopher Columbus" is the anglicised name. 
Parents: Columbus' parents were Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver, and Susanna Fontanarossa. 
Columbus' Siblings: Bartholomew Columbus, Giovanni Pellegrino (who died young); Giacomo Columbus (also called Diego); and one sister, Bianchinetta Columbus. 
Birth: Columbus was born between August 25 and the end of October 1451, in Genoa, Italy. 
Death: Columbus died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid, Spain, age c. 54. Source: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 108, page 284.
Spouse (s): Columbus was married to Felipa Moniz Perestrelo around 1479 until her death in Portugal. 
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana became Columbus' mistress around 1486-1487 in Spain. 
Children: Columbus had 2 children; One was Diego Columbus, probably born in 1480 from his marriage with Filipa, and Fernando (Ferdinand or Hernando) whose mother was Beatriz. He was born in August 1488. 
Purpose: The purpose of Columbus' explorations was to find another route to India (Asia) by going west crossing the Atlantic Ocean, instead of going by land, which was dangerous due to the enmity between Christian Europe and The Moors (Muslim countries), or by sailing around the African continent like Europeans used to do. Columbus promised to bring spices, pearls, gold, and also to spread Christianity to the newly discovered lands. 
Columbus made Four Voyages:
First Voyage- 1492-1493.
Second Voyage- 1493-1496.
Third Voyage- 1498-1500.
Fourth Voyage- 1502-1503.
San Salvador (Guanahani) on October 12, 1492.
Juana (Cuba) on October 28, 1492.
La Española or Hispaniola (Haiti/ Dominican Republic) on December 5, 1492.
Dominica on November 3, 1493.
Santa María la Galante (Marie-Galante) on November 3, 1493.
Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura (Guadalupe) on November 4, 1493.
San Juan Bautista (Puerto Rico) on November 19, 1493.
Saona in May 1494.
Jamaica in May 1494.
Also Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Sint Eustatius, Saba, San Martín (Saint Martin), Santa Cruz (Saint Croix), Virgin Gorda, Tortola, San Pedro (Saint Peter).
He also charted Martinique in 1493.
Trinidad on July 31, 1498.
Venezuela in South America.
El Caracol (Chacachacare).
Bella Forma (Tobago).
Isla de Pinos (Guanaja) in 1502.
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
Las Tortugas ( Cayman Islands) on May 10, 1503.
Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy,  but later moved to Portugal after a ship he probably worked as a sailor, was attacked by corsairs. Ships from both sides caught on fire, but Columbus survived by clinging to an oar swimming toward the Portuguese shore. Later Columbus met his future wife Felipa Moniz Perestrelo in a church. 
Columbus first made his voyage proposal to the King of Portugal, who declined the offer, but secretly sent a ship away. Columbus found out and left Portugal angry. He sent his brother Bartholomew Columbus to England while he went to Spain with his son Diego, as his wife Felipa was dead by now, to pursue his dream. 
Columbus went to Spain around 1484 or 1485. He made his proposal to the King and Queen of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabel, which in turn delegated a Council to hear his offer. The Council rejected Columbus' proposal as "vain" and "impossible," and laughed and scorned him for his ideas. However, the Queen was interested in Columbus' vision. He had to wait seven years for an answer from Spain, due to the Monarchs' constant wars. 
The Spanish Sovereigns later denied Columbus' offer, so he decided to go to France instead. Queen Isabel changed her mind and sent for Columbus to come back, and in 1492 he went with 3 caravels, La Pinta, La Niña and La Santa Maria, to the New World. 
Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, on August 3, 1492. He had to stop at the Canary Islands to repair some of the ships.  After taking provisions, he left on September 6. 1492. From there it took him 36 days to reach the New World. Columbus went through uncharted waters.
Going west from Europe to the other side of the world was something people would not have dared to do in those days, which is why some of the sailors were crying by the time they left port. This is the reason why Columbus kept false entries in his journal, so the superstitious crew would not know how far they were away from Europe. 
After a few days the sailors threatened Columbus' life saying if he would not turn back home, they would throw him off overboard and claim he fell by accident. Columbus calmed their fears and continued the voyage. 
There was a reward to the first person to sight land. The first person to sight land was Rodrigo de Triana, but the King and Queen of Spain chose to reward Columbus instead, judging he saw the light of the land first. 
The discovery happened on October 12, 1492.
Columbus took possession of the island for Spain and named it San Salvador (Holy Saviour). There has been debate over where San Salvador is. Only Columbus knew where it was. He kept it secret because of his experience with the King of Portugal who tried to steal his idea once. Guanahani is the native and present-day name of the island is believed to be San Salvador. 
The natives they found in the Caribbean were naked, timid and friendly. He perceived they were good people and intelligent enough to become Christians. Columbus gave them gifts and traded with them everywhere he went. Back then there were no maps of where they were, so Columbus initially took some of them by force to serve as guides. 
Since some of them escaped, Columbus changed his approach by taking them first, then, giving them gifts, and then letting them go. Columbus did not know their language and the natives did not know his. By doing this, the natives understood Columbus' intentions were good, and voluntarily chose to go with him as guides, and as proof to Spain that he really went to the Indies.
Also, the natives thought Columbus came from Heaven  to save them from the attacks of the Caribs (or Caribes), who constantly attacked them and killed them. The Caribs were cannibals and that is what that word ("Caribe" as in the ''Caribbean'' sea) means.
In November, Captain Martin Alonso Pinzon, out of greed left the expedition to seek gold by himself. 
Later, the Santa Maria caravel accidentally shipwrecked in La Española on Christmas, December 25, 1492. Due to the kindness of the local chief, Guacanagari, helping save the cargo, Columbus promised him, as his ally, he would get rid of the Caribs for him on his next (Second) Voyage. Columbus built a fort with the wood of the shipwrecked caravel and left 39 men on the island. 
A few days later they found Captain Pinzon and they returned to Spain in the remaining two ships. 
On the way back they faced several storms and thought they were going to die. One storm drove Columbus' ship to Portugal. The King of Portugal met with him and lamented he had not given Columbus a chance. Columbus soon returned to Spain where he was received as a hero. 
The King and Queen of Spain confirmed Columbus' privileges, rights, and titles, as Governor of the lands discovered and Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Columbus left Europe to return to the New World in October 1493 with 17 ships and 1,200 people. Columbus started his Second Voyage by rescuing the Tainos from the hands of the Caribs as promised to chief Gaucanagari. However, when Columbus reached La Española he found his 39 men dead. The Spaniards did not obey Columbus' orders to stay together and respect the natives, and a rival chief named Caonabo killed the men and burned chief Guacanagari's village down. Guacanagari tried to defend the Spaniards but failed. 
Columbus decided to go to another part of the island and settle there. They founded a town named Isabella in honor of the Queen of Spain. Caonabo kept harassing Columbus and his people, trying to kill them like he did with the other Spaniards before. 
Columbus left La Española to keep exploring, trying to reach the mainland. When he returned to La Española he found the land in turmoil. The Spaniards again had disobeyed Columbus' orders to respect the natives, and some chiefs started to kill the Spaniards in retaliation. Columbus arrested some of the chiefs to stop the bloodshed and took some natives as prisoners. Because of these events, Caonabo had the support he sought for in the other chiefs to fight Columbus, with the exception of Guacanagari who remained Columbus' ally. In turn, Guacanagari asked Columbus to help him fight Caonabo because he killed one of his wives and another chief kidnapped another one of them (chiefs were allowed to have more than one wife). The chiefs gathered an army of 100,000 natives but Columbus (with chief Guacanagari) defeated them, sold some of them as slaves and made the rest to pay tribute. All these were the customs of war back then. 
During this Second Voyage, many colonists died of hunger and sickness, while others returned to Spain, upset things hadn't worked out the way they had expected. Many of them came to get rich quick, just to find out that work was hard. Columbus decided to go back to Spain to recruit more colonists, bring supplies and defend his cause before the Monarchs, against the slanders of some envious men. 
Columbus wanted to start his Third Voyage immediately to bring supplies to the colonists who stayed on La Española, but the affairs of the court delayed the Voyage a year. 
Columbus set sail with six vessels loaded with provisions and other things needed to relieve the settlers of La Española on May 30, 1498. On June 19th, Columbus rescued two Spanish vessels from French corsairs. On June 21st, 1498, he sent three of his ships to Española while he went to search for the mainland. 
It is on this Voyage that he reached the South American continent. There he questioned the shape of the Earth. He believed the Earth was round, "but of the form of a pear, which is very round except where the stalk grows, at which part it is most prominent; or like a round ball, upon one part of which is a prominence like a woman’s nipple." Columbus also thought he was close to the Terrestrial Biblical Paradise. 
After exploring South America, Columbus returned to La Española to find it in revolt. During Columbus absence, some colonists died, while more of the one hundred and sixty survivors were sick with the French sickness (syphilis). Francisco Roldan rebelled against Columbus' brothers' authority and started a rebellion. Outnumbered, Columbus and his brothers submitted to Roldan and his confederates' demands while at the same time Columbus sent secret letters to the Queen reporting the rebellion and how the Spaniards were mistreating the natives. The letters never reached the Queen on time. The Queen decided to send Francisco de Bobadilla to La Española to investigate the complaints by the rebels against Columbus and his brothers.
Bobadilla arrived at La Española and took the testimony of the rebels as a evidence without any investigation. This document was lost but was found in 2006.  The accusations were false.
Bobadilla arrested Columbus and his brothers without due process, without telling them why, and he also confiscated Columbus' property and took the governorship for himself. Columbus was sent to Spain in chains, but the Sovereigns of Spain immediately cleared him of the charges because they did not believe the accusations and repented they had ever sent Bobadilla to the island. In turn, the King and Queen removed Bobadilla from office, arrested Roldan and his confederates and promised Columbus his property and titles back. 
The Fourth Voyage is the most epic of all. Columbus took one of his sons, Ferdinand, with him on this voyage. He was 13 years old. The purpose of this voyage was to explore the coast of the continent until he found a strait to India.
Columbus started the voyage by helping rescue a Portuguese ship from Moor enemies in 1502. He was told by the Queen to not make a stop in La Española, but he was forced to stop there to trade one of his ships, which was in poor conditions, for a better one. The Governor of La Española, Nicolas Ovando, denied him access. Columbus also predicted that a hurricane would happen on their way there, but no one believed him. The hurricane came and destroy ships going back to Spain, where Columbus' enemies like Bobadilla, Roldan and the rest of the rebels, were transported. All Columbus' enemies died, but the ship carrying money owed to Columbus arrived safely to Spain. Some believed this was Divine judgment, while others claimed, it was a course spelled by Columbus using magic arts. 
Columbus explored the South American continent again. Later he and his crew were caught in a terrible storm and a waterspout passed between two of their ships, which was dissolved when the sailors were reciting the Gospel of John. After the storm, the ships were surrounded by sharks, which some thought were a bad omen. Columbus and his crew rested in a harbor for a few days, but once they went sailing, they were caught in several storms again. They eventually reached Veragua, where they met with the local chief who they called the Quibian. 
Columbus decided to return to Spain to bring supplies and reinforcements and left his brother Bartholomew in charge, to settle and conquer the land. 
The Quibian, in turn, sent the Spaniards to what they believed was the gold mines of Veragua, but later they learned the Quibian purposely sent them to enemy land. Later the Quibian planned to set fire to the houses of the Spaniards and kill them. Once they discovered the conspiracy, Bartholomew Columbus decided to ambush the Quibian and took some of his people as hostage. However, the Quibian escaped and attacked the Spaniards killing some and wounded others. Columbus was still in Veragua, so the survivors were able to flee the land with him.
Columbus' ships were leaking so he was not able to reach Spain and was forced to abandon one of the ships. He tried to reach La Española, but he ended up marooned in Jamaica. 
Columbus sent Diego Mendez and Bartolomeo Fieschi in canoes from Jamaica to La Española to request a rescue ship for them. Columbus would not let the Spaniards disperse in Jamaica because he knew they were disrespectful and would harass the natives even if they were punished. Eventually, a mutiny broke with the Porras brothers as the leaders. The mutineers went to steal from the natives and told them to collect their pay from the Admiral and authorized them to kill him if he would not pay. Because of this, the natives stopped bringing food to Columbus and his allies at a time they were starving. Columbus told the natives God was angry at them for neglecting to bring food, which they were paying for. As a sign, God would make the moon rise inflamed with wrath in the night. Columbus was referring to an eclipse he knew was going to happen that night. When the natives saw the eclipse they begged Columbus to pray to his God to make it go away. They apologized to him and brought him food for the rest of his stay.
Columbus proposed peace with the Spanish mutineers, but they tried to kill Columbus' brother, Bartholomew, who in turn, defeated them in a fight and arrested the rest of them.
Eventually, La Española sent help to Jamaica. Initially, Governor Ovando sent a ship not to rescue Columbus, but to spy on him, out of fear, thinking Columbus might become Governor of La Española in his place. Later the Governor sent the help they needed and Columbus and the crew were rescued. When Columbus arrived in Spain, he learned the Queen had died, which caused him great sadness. His property was still confiscated, his rights and privileges suspended, even though the Spanish Government promised them back.
Columbus died one year after the Queen's death. He died sick and depressed on the day of the Ascension of Christ, May 20, 1506, after receiving the sacraments of the church. His last words were the last words of Christ on the cross: "In your hands, I commit my spirit." 
Source: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 3, page 9.
"In eating and drinking, and in the adornment of his person, he was very moderate and modest. He was affable in conversation with strangers and very pleasant to the members of his household, though with a certain gravity."
Columbus was "patient, long-suffering, prone to forgive injuries... a man of courageous soul and high aspirations, always pervaded with infinite confidence in Divine Providence and never failing in loyalty to the sovereigns whom he served."
Sources: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 3, page 9, and Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Capítulo II.
Columbus had been considered the best sailor of his times, by both, his contemporaries and today's modern times. Bartolome de las Casas said "...Christopher Columbus was the most outstanding sailor in the world..." Scholar and sailor Samuel Eliot Morison said "As a master mariner and navigator, Columbus was supreme in his generation."
Sources: History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 17. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XLIII, page 213.
At a time of much illiteracy, Columbus knew how to read and write. He was talented in calligraphy; he knew Latin. He also studied arithmetic; he was skillful in drawing; he acquired "proficiency in geometry, geography, cosmography, astrology or astronomy, and seamanship." In addition, he could speak the languages of Genoa, Castile, and Portugal.
Source: "History of the Indies" by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 15.
Columbus was a Christian. He believed God chose him to spread Christianity to the New World. His son Ferdinand described him as “so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order. He was so great enemy of swearing and blasphemy that I give my word I never heard him utter any other oath than 'by St. Ferdinand!' "
Bartolome de las Casas similarly stated that Columbus "confessed and received communion frequently; he recited the canonical hours like an ecclesiastic or a monk... he was most devoted to Our
Lady and to the seraphic Father, St. Francis… most jealous of the Divine honor, eager and desirous for the conversion of these" (Indigenous) "peoples, and that the faith of Jesus Christ should be everywhere spread, and singularly given and devoted to God that he might be made worthy to help in some way to win the Holy Sepulcher.” Columbus would sometimes dress like a monk.
Sources: "The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand," Chapter 3, page 9, and Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Capítulo II. Also, see The Book of Prophecies by Christopher Columbus.
Flat Earth and other Myths
Though most educated people believed the Earth was round, some still believed it was flat. Columbus was not trying to prove the Earth was round, but he decided to cross the ocean because the Earth is round. Columbus believed the Earth was smaller than it is, while the Spanish Council believed it was bigger. The Council believed Columbus would fail because if the Earth was bigger, and covered with water, his ships soon would run out of provisions and everyone would die. Though Columbus' opinion was contrary to the theories of most of the ancients, he was influenced by respected cosmographers who believed the Earth was smaller, like Pliny, Ptolemy, and Paolo Toscanelli, who was his contemporary.
Sources: De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 65 and The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 6-8.
The Spanish Counsel was right that the Earth was bigger than what Columbus thought, but Columbus was right that he could reach the other side in a short period of time, as he did. Neither Columbus, nor the Spanish Council, or the ancient cosmographers of the past, knew there was a continent between Europe and Asia. Maps back then would end with Thule. No one would dare to pass it. Not even the Vikings. The reason why Viking Leif Erikson reached Vinland, in North America, was because a storm took him there by accident. Neither he, nor his companions, knew where they were, and probably thought they were still somewhere in the Arctic or Europe.
Sources: The Saga of Eirik the Red, Chapter "Eirik's family, and his son Leif's discovery of Vinland," pages 23, 24, and Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XVI, page 90.
However, the Council believed in a number of myths in regards to the Earth, like, "the world was infinite and that would be impossible to reach the eastern limits even after years of sailing… They quoted... the ancient doubt as to whether the ocean was navigable... or in the event it was navigable, whether one was likely to find land on the other side; but if there were land, it was unlikely it was inhabited; but if it were uninhabited, it was unlikely that one could set out to find it… Those who professed to know more... maintained that only a small body of land in the southern hemisphere was left uncovered because the rest was under water; therefore, it was possible to sail only along coast lines… And they said more: sailing straight West, as Columbus planned, would mean one could never return, for supposing the world were round, going West was sinking downhill out of the hemisphere described by Ptolemy; it would be necessary to return uphill, which is something ships cannot do…”
Source: History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 29, pages 26-28.
The word "Discover" never meant “the first person to find desolate land” in Columbus’ historical context. Rather it means Columbus discovered a continent people from the Old World did not know existed back then. The New World was not on the maps until Columbus had discovered it. To read more in-depth about the subject, please click here: http://www.officialchristophercolumbus.com/2018/08/did-columbus-discover-america-what-does.html
History revisionists usually claim Columbus' legacy is either mixed or negative because of the interaction of natives and Europeans in regards to war, conquest, and slavery. What revisionists won't tell you is that war, conquest, and slavery were the rule of the day and were practiced by Indigenous people as well, as were cannibalism and human sacrifice.
Columbus' legacy is positive. Today we are here in the New World because of him. He discovered a continent the Old World did not know existed. Columbus was the one who brought two different worlds back together after hundreds of years of lost communication. Columbus also imported Christianity, the Judeo-Christian values and the ideas of Western Civilization rooted in Greek democracy and Roman law. It is men of faith, reason, and Western values who soon brought us freedom of worship, freedom of expression and human rights. Before Columbus, slavery was universal. Slavery was practiced for thousands of years before Columbus, but it was abolished 363 years after Columbus' discovery because of the values he brought here. Not to mention the advancement of science and medicine, curing or treating the diseases that were plaguing both sides of the world for millennia.
1. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 1.
2. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapters I, page 17.
3. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter II, page 11.
4. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter II, page 7.
5. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XX, page 103. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Chapter 4, Book One, page 19.
6. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XXXVII, page 187.
7. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter IV, page 38. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XXXVII, page 187.
8. De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 57. Columbus' Journal (translated by John Cummins), Prologue, page 81.
9. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 15; De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 57; Historia de los Reyes Católicos, Andrés Bernáldez, Tomo I, Capítulo CXVIII, página 269; Historia General, Herrera, Década I, Libro I, Capítulo VII, página 11; Historia General y Natural Oviedo, Capítulo II, página 12. Also, Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Notes to Chapter 1 His Birth: Fables, Disputes and Documents, page 223. 1985.
10. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 5, pages 13-14. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter X, page 60.
11. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 11, pages 35-37. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas, Chapter 29, pages 24-25.
12. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 12, pages 37-40. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas, Chapter 29, pages 24-31.
13. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 13-15.
14. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 16-17.
15. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 18.
16. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 20.
17. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 22. Columbus Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492.
18. Historia General de las Indias por López de Gomera, Tomo I, Capitulo XVI, pagina 43. (Calpe Madrid 1922). The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 26, page 66.
19. Columbus Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492.
20. Columbus Journal, October 15, November 29, December 3, 12, 13, 16, 1492.
21. Columbus Journal, October 14, 1492. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 25.
22. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 30, page 74.
23. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 34, page 85. Columbus Journal, Tuesday, December 25, 1492.
24. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 35, page 87.
25. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 36-42. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 78, pages 37-40.
26. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 43-50.
27. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 51-53.
28. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 54-61.
29. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 63.
30. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 65.
31. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 66.
32. Narrative of the Voyage which Don Christopher Columbus made the third time that he came to the Indies, when he discovered terra firma, as he sent it to their Majesties from the Island of Hispaniola, from Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, page 134. and 141. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 68-73.
33. Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/aug/07/books.spain
34. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 74-87. Columbus sending secret letters source: Historia de las Indias por Las Casas, Libro I, Tomo II, Capitulo CLIX, pagina 360.
35. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 88.
36. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 89-93.
37. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 94.
38. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 95.
39. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 96-100.
40. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 101-108.
Bibliography and Primary Sources
1. The Voyage of Christopher Columbus, Columbus’ Own Journal of Discovery. Newly Restored and Translated by John Cummins. St. Martin’s Press New York, 1992.
2. Writings of Christopher Columbus, Descriptive of the Discovery and Occupation of the New World. Charles L. Webster & Co. New York, 1890.
3. The Book of Prophecies Edited by Christopher Columbus. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1997.
4. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand. Translated and Annotated by Benjamin Keen. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey 1992.
5. De Orbe Novo. The Eight Decades of Peter Martyr D'Anghiera. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London The Kníckerbocker Press, 1912.
6. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas. Translated and Edited by Andree M. Collard. Harper Torchbooks Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Evanston, and London, 1971.
7. Historia de las Indias, Escrita por Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Obispo de Chiapa, Imprenta de Miguel Ginesta, 1875.
8. Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos, en las Islas, y Tierra-Firme de el Mar Oceano. Escrita por Antonio de Herrera.
9. Historia de los Reyes Católicos, Crónica inédita del siglo XV, por El Bachiller Andrés Bernáldez. Tomo I. Imprenta y librería de D. José Alaria Zamora, 1856.
10. Historia General y Natural de las Indias, Isla y Tierra-Firme del Mar Océano por El Capitán Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. Primer Cronista del Nuevo Mundo. Imprenta de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1851.