Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Frequently Asked Questions and Arguments About Christopher Columbus:


-Columbus did not reach what is known today as America.

America includes North, Central, South America, and the Caribbean, so yes, Columbus discovered and reached America. 

-Columbus did not reach North America.
Amerigo Vespucci neither reached North America, yet the whole New World is named after him. Nevertheless, Columbus reached the continent (South America) first, before Vespucci did. 

-Columbus did not reach what is today the United States. 
No, he did not. However what is known today as the USA was reached because of him. Columbus proposed his idea of discovery to Portugal first. Once he was denied, he went to Spain, but sent his brother to England with the same proposal. England said "no," but Spain said "yes." Once Columbus proved in 1492 that it was saved to cross the Atlantic Ocean, England sent John Cabot to reach North America, while South America was to be explored by Spain and Portugal. It was Juan Ponce de Leon (who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage) who discovered Florida, and later Spanish Conquistador Hernando de Soto, who explored Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas before England established any settlements. In short, Columbus did not reach what is known today as the USA, but the USA was reached because of him. In addition, Columbus discovered Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands which are USA territory today. 

-The Vikings discovered America. 
If Columbus did not discover America "because people were already living here," then by the same logic the Vikings did not discover anything because natives were already living there.

-Columbus was lost. He believed he was in India. 
Actually, EVERYONE believed they would reach the Indies. Back then, the Old World did not know there was a continent in between Europe and Asia. That's what "Columbus discovered America" means. Because of him, America is now on the maps today.

-Columbus reached an insignificant island in the Bahamas.  
Columbus was the first European to reach the Caribbean and South America. His discoveries included important islands like La Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. In South America he reached important lands like Venezuela, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In addition, he discovered San Salvador (Guanahani), Dominica, Santa María la Galante (Marie-Galante), Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura (Guadalupe), Saona, Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Sint Eustatius, Saba, San Martín (Saint Martin), Santa Cruz (Saint Croix), Virgin Gorda, Tortola, San Pedro (Saint Peter), Martinique, Trinidad, El Caracol (Chacachacare), Margarita, Bella Forma (Tobago), Concepción (Grenada), Isla de Pinos (Guanaja) and Las Tortugas (Cayman Islands). So, no, the lands Columbus reached were not insignificant.

Did Columbus mistreat the natives?
The answer is, no. Columbus is the one who told the Queen of Spain that the Tainos were good people. The Queen ordered Columbus to protect them and to harshly punish anyone who would mistreat them. Columbus protected the Tainos from the Caribs, a tribe of cannibals who constantly raided the Tainos, and he also punished any corrupt Spaniard who would harass or mistreated them.

-Columbus and his brothers were arrested because they were cruel toward Spaniards and Indigenous people. 
Columbus and his brothers were falsely accused by Spanish mutineers of cruelty. Columbus and his brothers were immediately released of the charges because the King and Queen of Spain did not believe the accusations. All they were doing was enforcing the Sovereigns orders to protect the Tainos. In response, the King and Queen sent for the immediate arrest of the Spanish mutineers who rebelled against Columbus, and removed the governor who arrested him without due process. 

-Did Columbus start the Transatlantic slave trade?
No. Slavery was practiced in every continent of the world before, during, and after Columbus. It was practiced by the Indigenous people as well. Columbus personally did not own slaves. The ones he sent to Spain were native prisoners of war, in battles he was forced to fight in self-defense. As for the Transatlantic slave trade, it was created by the Portuguese, with the assistance of Africans, after Columbus died. So no, Columbus did not create the Transatlantic slave trade. 

-Did Columbus commit genocide? 
Revisionists call infectious diseases like smallpox, "genocide." The problem with their argument is that infectious diseases are not genocide. Smallpox killed many natives in some places in the Americas long after Columbus was dead. Infectious diseases were common throughout history in every continent of the world. In the case of syphilis, it was introduced into the Old World by the Indigenous people of the New World. So no, Columbus did not commit genocide.

-Did Columbus sell children as sex slaves? 
No. Revisionists use a portion of a letter Columbus wrote, claiming he was selling children for sex. The problem is that the letter says nothing of the sort. In the letter, Columbus was complaining against the Spaniards, how they were in mutiny against his authority and how they were mistreating the natives. For more details on this subject, click here: https://www.officialchristophercolumbus.com/2018/07/snopes-and-columbus.html


#FrequentlyAskedQuestionsAndArgumentsAboutChristopherColumbus

Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Thanksgiving Day (Excerpt from "Columbus Day vs. Indigenous Peoples' Day" Book, Chapter 10)


The same way revisionists play with semantics with Columbus, claiming he did not discover anything because there were people already living in America, so it is with Thanksgiving Day. Revisionists claim that was not the First Thanksgiving because other cultures, including the natives, had some kind of Thanksgiving Day to their deities throughout history. Thanksgiving Day in the USA is not about the first thanksgiving that ever happened in history, but rather, the first thanksgiving made by the Pilgrims when they arrived to America. Maybe what revisionists don’t like is that the Pilgrims gave thanks to the Christian God. 

Another thing revisionists are doing is changing the year that Thanksgiving Day happened so it will coincide with an incident were some natives tribes were massacred in a battle in 1637. Men, women, and children of the Pequot Tribe died, and some were sold as slaves. They want us to think that the battle happened for no reason. According to primary historical source Bradford’s History of the Plymouth Settlement, the Pequots were usurpers of other Indian tribes (page 249). They were “a warlike tribe that had conquered many of its” (Indian) “neighbors” (page 280), and they “openly attacked the English in Connecticut… and killed many of them as they were at work in the fields, both men and women…” (page 283). The Pequots conspired with the Narragansetts to “fire” the colonists “houses, kill their cattle, and lie in ambush for them.” Except the Narragansetts were victims of the Pequots too, and decided to join the colonists instead. All that the English and the Narragansetts did was the exact thing Pequots were planning to do to the colonists in the first place. The Pequot were the bullies. They just got punched back in the nose by their intended victims. The colonists praise God for the victory, as the Pequots would have done, if they had been the victors. Bradford’s History of the Plymouth Settlement, pages 286-288. 

Other revisionists argue that the First Thanksgiving was not in 1621, where they were celebrating eating with the Indians; but in 1623, where the celebration was preceded by fasting and prayer. They claim that 1623 was the “real” Thanksgiving, and 1621 was the “fake” Thanksgiving. They claim that primary source Edward Winslow did not use the word “thanksgiving” for the 1621 “fake” Thanksgiving. The word “First Thanksgiving” was a footnote added later by the book publisher and the name stuck. That is not entirely true. The Winslow account did not use the word “thanksgiving,” but that is exactly what the Pilgrims were doing. 

Winslow said: “Our Corne did proue well, & God be praysed” (praise), “we had a good increafe [sic] of Indian-Corne, and our Barly indifferent good…” Mourt’s Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth, pages 132-133.

In other words, the Pilgrims were praising God for prosperity, after a hard year of distress. Praising God is a form of thanksgiving. Next Winslow described how they celebrated, which is the part of the story we are all familiar with. In modern English: “Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling,” (hunting) “that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruits of our labor. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which we brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God,” (sounds like he is thanking God again!) “we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty.”
Mourt’s Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth. 

Turkeys are mentioned in Bradford’s version of the same story: “And beside water foule, ther [sic] was great store of wild Turkies, of which they tooke many…”
Bradford’s History of the Plimouth Plantation, From the Original Manuscript, page 126.

That was the “fake” Thanksgiving. According to some, the “real” Thanksgiving happened after the Lord answered the Pilgrims prayers for rain. They were struggling with a famine, but the Lord saved them, and William Bradford suggested to “set apart a day of thanksgiving.”
Bradford’s History of the Plimouth Plantation, From the Original Manuscript, Pages 170-171 (footnote).

Since that was the first time the word “thanksgiving” was used in the Pilgrim's accounts, that is the reason some claim today is the “real” Thanksgiving. The fact is both were thanksgivings to God for saving them in times of trouble. We could say 1621 was maybe expontaneous, while 1623 was official. But what do they care about it? They want to replace it with UnThanksgiving Day anyway!

People associate the United States with the Pilgrims which is why Americans in no way will buy into removing or replacing Thanksgiving Day. For some reason, they don’t associate America with Columbus. Probably because it is named “America” and not “Columbus.” 

To conclude this chapter, Thanksgiving Day is about unity, and in my opinion, is one of the most beautiful times of the year. The celebration is quickly followed by Christmas. Both celebrations are rooted in religion, but you don’t have to be religious to enjoy them. Everyone is welcome. Indians were present celebrating with the Pilgrims. That’s why Thanksgiving is a celebration of unity. Yet, we have some ungrateful people out there trying to divide people and some Grinches trying to steal Christmas. There was even a teacher who put some Satanic displays beside some Christmas decorations not that long ago! What a Grinch! Misery loves company!


You can buy our book here: Amazon

#ThanksgivingDay #ColumbusDay 


Monday, November 19, 2018

The Day of the Discovery of Puerto Rico 2018


Today (November 19, 2018) is the Day of the Discovery of Puerto Rico. Christopher Columbus discovered the Island during his second voyage on November 19, 1493. The Indigenous name of the Island was "Boriken," "Boriquen" or "Borinquen." Columbus named it San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist. Borinquen means "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord" or "land of the great lords." Puerto Rico (Rich Port) was the name of the capital, but later the names switched and the Island became known as Puerto Rico, and the capital as  San Juan. Puerto Rico's first governor was Juan Ponce de Leon, who also later discovered Florida and who also went to find the Fountain of Youth in Bimini. The city I was born in Puerto Rico is named after him (Ponce). 

Our Anthem mentions Christopher Columbus by name:

"Cuando a sus playas llegó Colón; exclamó lleno de admiración: ‘¡Oh! ¡Oh! ¡Oh! Esta es la linda tierra que busco yo.’ Es Borinquen la hija, la hija del mar y el sol."

Translation: "When at her beaches Columbus arrived; full of awe he exclaimed: ‘Oh! Oh! Oh! This is the lovely land I was looking for.’ Borinquen is the daughter, the daughter of the sea and the sun."

Here are some excerpts from a primary historical source Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo. The English translation is mine:

"The Indians call Borinquen the Island that the Christians call San Juan (Saint John), which is east of La Hispaniola Island, five or thirty leagues away. Around halfway there is the Island of Mona, around ten and seven degrees of the equinoctial line, to the side of our Arctic pole... There is a lot of fish in it and it has good water; and what they cultivate is the bread of casabe that I mentioned before, which is the bread of the Indians, and maize (corn). There are many good red crabs... 

On the east part, it has many small islands... called Las Islas Vírgines (The Virgin Islands)...  

That Island (Borinquen) is very rich in gold... especially on the north coast... they (the natives) do not differ in anything from the people of La Hispaniola Island as I mentioned, except that these Indians of San Juan are archers and more warlike; but they are naked and they are of the same color and stature...

This Island has, almost in the middle of it... a beautiful Mountain range with many good rivers and waters in many places...

The easternmost river, on the same coast, at the end of the said city, is called Loiza; where a Cacica (a female native Chief) settled and became a Christian and was called Loiza, which the Carib Indians killed...

To the western part of this island, there is a village that is called San German... On the west is Mayaguez... Cabo Rojo... Yauco...

Juan Ponce de Leon... is one of those who passed to these parts with the first Admiral, Christopher Columbus, on the second voyage he made to these Indies... In the time that Juan Ponce governed the Island of San Juan, he built the first town... named Caparra."
Historia General y Natural by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, pages 465 to 469.



Image by Jorge Colomer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castillo_San_Felipe_del_Morro_Sunset_in_San_Juan,_Puerto_Rico.jpg

#PuertoRicoDiscoveryByColumbus


Wednesday, November 14, 2018

"1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus" by Charles Mann- Book Review



I did not like this book. I kept asking myself, what is the point of it? The author has a secular worldview that I don't share. The author claims the Inkas were the biggest empire in 1491 (page 64), which means there was a lot of bloodshed. Though the author tells us some of the war stories from the Inkas, he questioned the veracity of it because it was written by Spaniards (page 69). Yet he is sure the Spaniards were brutal toward Indigenous people, by quoting from the same Spanish sources he believed are not reliable when it comes to the Inkas.

He seems to dismiss the Aztec human sacrifices as the equivalent of the European death penalty (page 120). He mentioned the depopulation of natives by the Spaniards, but he did not mention the Carib tribes were depopulating entire islands in the Caribbean before Columbus' arrival in 1492. 

Like many modern authors, he blamed plagues on Europeans, as if plagues and diseases never existed in the New World before Columbus. He repeated the same cliches about smallpox, but he had to admit syphilis existed before Columbus. However, he makes all these arguments trying to sound objective. 

Like I said in "Columbus Day vs Indigenous Peoples' Day" book, "Are you telling me that Indigenous peoples never experienced plagues, epidemics, diseases, and the like? Really? Remember, some tribes ate poisonous animals, had sex with anything that moved, practiced cannibalism, performed human sacrifices, and none were as technologically advanced in science and medicine as the Europeans, and you are telling me they never experienced disease? No way!"

The author claimed that British vessels may have reached Newfoundland (America) before Columbus (1480)... which also means, they might not have, and didn't! He said that in 1501 Gaspar Corte-Real found items from Venice with some natives, ignoring Europeans had been trading with natives since 1492. The fact still remains that neither England nor Venice did not reach America before Columbus. 

The book later focuses on the scholarly assumptions and theories of different things about the Indigenous people. I think the best books about the Indigenous people of the past, are those written by Columbus and his contemporaries, including Ferdinand Columbus, Las Casas, Gomara, Oviedo, Martyr, Sahagun, etc.
#1491CharlesMann


Wednesday, October 24, 2018

"Christopher Columbus- The Grand Design" by Paolo Emilio Taviani Book Review



This book is not a biography, but insights from the author about what motivated Columbus to his grand design, the discovery of America. If you are a Columbus fan, then this book should be part of your collection. 

The book is strangely divided into two parts. The first and second part of the book has the same chapters. I'm guessing the author felt some information might be too technical for some readers, so he put it on the second half of the book, as a regular book would do with references and notes at the end of it. That's my guess. The book is close to 600 pages long. It includes pictures and maps.  

The author gives a lot of background about Columbus' parents, family, friends, and places he lived or visited before the discovery. He also debunks many falsehoods from revisionists and exposes some falsified documents from con artists. This book is a classic!

#PaoloEmilioTavianiColumbus

Monday, October 15, 2018

Review: "Ignatius of Loyola" The Movie



This movie is NOT about Columbus, but about a contemporary of his: Ignacio de Loyola. Loyola was the founder of the Jesuits, who in turn, evangelized Japan and China. Both places Columbus sought to spread the gospel. As for the movie, the script and acting were good, but the production was Ok. There were some powerful moments in the movie, but those moments were not consistent enough. They could have done a better job.
        
#IgnatiusOfLoyolaMovie


Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Christopher Columbus Biography


Christopher Columbus


If not the most important, he is one of the most important persons in history, dividing history like Jesus Christ (B.C. and A.C.) as the Pre-Columbian era and the Columbus era. Columbus was a visionary; a man who challenged his times. Columbus discovered America, the New World, in 1492.

Name: Columbus original name is Cristoforo Colombo. He changed his name into Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. "Christopher Columbus" is the anglicised name. [1]

Parents: Columbus' parents were Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver, and Susanna Fontanarossa. [2]

Columbus' SiblingsBartholomew Columbus, Giovanni Pellegrino (who died young); Giacomo Columbus (also called Diego); and one sister, Bianchinetta Columbus. [3]

Birth: Columbus was born between August 25 and the end of October 1451, in Genoa, Italy. [4]

Death: Columbus died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid, Spain, age c. 54. Source: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 108, page 284.

Spouse (s): Columbus was married to Felipa Moniz Perestrelo around 1479 until her death in Portugal. [5]
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana became Columbus' mistress around 1486-1487 in Spain. [6]

Children: Columbus had 2 children; One was Diego Columbus, probably born in 1480 from his marriage with Filipa, and Fernando (Ferdinand or Hernando) whose mother was Beatriz. He was born in August 1488. [7] 

Purpose: The purpose of Columbus' explorations was to find another route to India (Asia) by going west crossing the Atlantic Ocean, instead of going by land, which was dangerous due to the enmity between Christian Europe and The Moors (Muslim countries), or by sailing around the African continent like Europeans used to do. Columbus promised to bring spices, pearls, gold, and also to spread Christianity to the newly discovered lands. [8]

Columbus made Four Voyages:

First Voyage- 1492-1493.
Second Voyage- 1493-1496.

Third Voyage- 1498-1500.
Fourth Voyage- 1502-1503.

Columbus discovered:

First Voyage:

San Salvador (Guanahani) on October 12, 1492.
Juana (Cuba) on October 28, 1492.
La Española or Hispaniola (Haiti/ Dominican Republic) on December 5, 1492. 

Second Voyage:
Dominica on November 3, 1493.
Santa María la Galante (Marie-Galante) on November 3, 1493.
Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura (Guadalupe) on November 4, 1493.
San Juan Bautista (Puerto Rico) on November 19, 1493.
Saona in May 1494.
Jamaica in May 1494.
Also Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Sint Eustatius, Saba, San Martín (Saint Martin), Santa Cruz (Saint Croix), Virgin Gorda, Tortola, San Pedro (Saint Peter).
He also charted Martinique in 1493.

Third Voyage:
Trinidad on July 31, 1498.

Venezuela in South America.
El Caracol (Chacachacare).
Margarita.
Bella Forma (Tobago).
Concepción (Grenada).

Fourth Voyage:
Isla de Pinos (Guanaja) in 1502. 
Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
Las Tortugas ( Cayman Islands) on May 10, 1503.


Early Life:

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, [9] but later moved to Portugal after a ship he probably worked as a sailor, was attacked by corsairs. Ships from both sides caught on fire, but Columbus survived by clinging to an oar swimming toward the Portuguese shore. Later Columbus met his future wife Felipa Moniz Perestrelo in a church. [10]

Columbus first made his voyage proposal to the King of Portugal, who declined the offer, but secretly sent a ship away. Columbus found out and left Portugal angry. He sent his brother Bartholomew Columbus to England while he went to Spain with his son Diego, as his wife Felipa was dead by now, to pursue his dream. [11]

Columbus went to Spain around 1484 or 1485. He made his proposal to the King and Queen of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabel, which in turn delegated a Council to hear his offer. The Council rejected Columbus' proposal as "vain" and "impossible," and laughed and scorned him for his ideas. However, the Queen was interested in Columbus' vision. He had to wait seven years for an answer from Spain, due to the Monarchs' constant wars. [12]

The Spanish Sovereigns later denied Columbus' offer, so he decided to go to France instead. Queen Isabel changed her mind and sent for Columbus to come back, and in 1492 he went with 3 caravels, La Pinta, La Niña and La Santa Maria, to the New World. [13]

First Voyage:

Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, on August 3, 1492. He had to stop at the Canary Islands to repair some of the ships. [14] After taking provisions, he left on September 6. 1492. From there it took him 36 days to reach the New World. Columbus went through uncharted waters. 

Going west from Europe to the other side of the world was something people would not have dared to do in those days, which is why some of the sailors were crying by the time they left port. This is the reason why Columbus kept false entries in his journal, so the superstitious crew would not know how far they were away from Europe. [15]

After a few days the sailors threatened Columbus' life saying if he would not turn back home, they would throw him off overboard and claim he fell by accident. Columbus calmed their fears and continued the voyage. [16]

There was a reward to the first person to sight land. The first person to sight land was Rodrigo de Triana, but the King and Queen of Spain chose to reward Columbus instead, judging he saw the light of the land first. [17]

The discovery happened on October 12, 1492.

Columbus took possession of the island for Spain and named it San Salvador (Holy Saviour). There has been debate over where San Salvador is. Only Columbus knew where it was. He kept it secret because of his experience with the King of Portugal who tried to steal his idea once. Guanahani is the native and present-day name of the island is believed to be San Salvador. [18]

The natives they found in the Caribbean were naked, timid and friendly. He perceived they were good people and intelligent enough to become Christians. Columbus gave them gifts and traded with them everywhere he went. Back then there were no maps of where they were, so Columbus initially took some of them by force to serve as guides. [19]

Since some of them escaped, Columbus changed his approach by taking them first, then, giving them gifts, and then letting them go. Columbus did not know their language and the natives did not know his. By doing this, the natives understood Columbus' intentions were good, and voluntarily chose to go with him as guides, and as proof to Spain that he really went to the Indies. 
[20]

Also, the natives thought Columbus came from Heaven [21] to save them from the attacks of the Caribs (or Caribes), who constantly attacked them and killed them. The Caribs were cannibals and that is what that word ("Caribe" as in the ''Caribbean'' sea) means. 

In November, Captain Martin Alonso Pinzon, out of greed left the expedition to seek gold by himself. [22]

Later, the Santa Maria caravel accidentally shipwrecked in La Española on Christmas, December 25, 1492. Due to the kindness of the local chief, Guacanagari, helping save the cargo, Columbus promised him, as his ally, he would get rid of the Caribs for him on his next (Second) Voyage. Columbus built a fort with the wood of the shipwrecked caravel and left 39 men on the island. [23]

A few days later they found Captain Pinzon and they returned to Spain in the remaining two ships. [24]

On the way back they faced several storms and thought they were going to die. One storm drove Columbus' ship to Portugal. The King of Portugal met with him and lamented he had not given Columbus a chance. Columbus soon returned to Spain where he was received as a hero. [25]

Second Voyage:

The King and Queen of Spain confirmed Columbus' privileges, rights, and titles, as Governor of the lands discovered and Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Columbus left Europe to return to the New World in October 1493 with 17 ships and 1,200 people. Columbus started his Second Voyage by rescuing the Tainos from the hands of the Caribs as promised to chief Gaucanagari. However, when Columbus reached La Española he found his 39 men dead. The Spaniards did not obey Columbus' orders to stay together and respect the natives, and a rival chief named Caonabo killed the men and burned chief Guacanagari's village down. Guacanagari tried to defend the Spaniards but failed. [26]

Columbus decided to go to another part of the island and settle there. They founded a town named Isabella in honor of the Queen of Spain. Caonabo kept harassing Columbus and his people, trying to kill them like he did with the other Spaniards before. [27]

Columbus left La Española to keep exploring, trying to reach the mainland. When he returned to La Española he found the land in turmoil. The Spaniards again had disobeyed Columbus' orders to respect the natives, and some chiefs started to kill the Spaniards in retaliation. Columbus arrested some of the chiefs to stop the bloodshed and took some natives as prisoners. Because of these events, Caonabo had the support he sought for in the other chiefs to fight Columbus, with the exception of Guacanagari who remained Columbus' ally. In turn, Guacanagari asked Columbus to help him fight Caonabo because he killed one of his wives and another chief kidnapped another one of them (chiefs were allowed to have more than one wife). The chiefs gathered an army of 100,000 natives but Columbus (with chief Guacanagari) defeated them, sold some of them as slaves and made the rest to pay tribute. All these were the customs of war back then. [28]

During this Second Voyage, many colonists died of hunger and sickness, while others returned to Spain, upset things hadn't worked out the way they had expected. Many of them came to get rich quick, just to find out that work was hard. Columbus decided to go back to Spain to recruit more colonists, bring supplies and defend his cause before the Monarchs, against the slanders of some envious men. [29]

Third Voyage:

Columbus wanted to start his Third Voyage immediately to bring supplies to the colonists who stayed on La Española, but the affairs of the court delayed the Voyage a year. [30]

Columbus set sail with six vessels loaded with provisions and other things needed to relieve the settlers of La Española on May 30, 1498. On June 19th, Columbus rescued two Spanish vessels from French corsairs. On June 21st, 1498, he sent three of his ships to Española while he went to search for the mainland. [31]

It is on this Voyage that he reached the South American continent. There he questioned the shape of the Earth. He believed the Earth was round, "but of the form of a pear, which is very round except where the stalk grows, at which part it is most prominent; or like a round ball, upon one part of which is a prominence like a woman’s nipple."  Columbus also thought he was close to the Terrestrial Biblical Paradise. [32]

After exploring South America, Columbus returned to La Española to find it in revolt. During Columbus absence, some colonists died, while more of the one hundred and sixty survivors were sick with the French sickness (syphilis). Francisco Roldan rebelled against Columbus' brothers' authority and started a rebellion. Outnumbered, Columbus and his brothers submitted to Roldan and his confederates' demands while at the same time Columbus sent secret letters to the Queen reporting the rebellion and how the Spaniards were mistreating the natives. The letters never reached the Queen on time. The Queen decided to send Francisco de Bobadilla to La Española to investigate the complaints by the rebels against Columbus and his brothers. 

Bobadilla arrived at La Española and took the testimony of the rebels as a evidence without any investigation. This document was lost but was found in 2006. [33] The accusations were false. 

Bobadilla arrested Columbus and his brothers without due process, without telling them why, and he also confiscated Columbus' property and took the governorship for himself. Columbus was sent to Spain in chains, but the Sovereigns of Spain immediately cleared him of the charges because they did not believe the accusations and repented they had ever sent Bobadilla to the island. In turn, the King and Queen removed Bobadilla from office, arrested Roldan and his confederates and promised Columbus his property and titles back. [34]

Fourth Voyage:

The Fourth Voyage is the most epic of all. Columbus took one of his sons, Ferdinand, with him on this voyage. He was 13 years old. The purpose of this voyage was to explore the coast of the continent until he found a strait to India.  

Columbus started the voyage by helping rescue a Portuguese ship from Moor enemies in 1502. He was told by the Queen to not make a stop in La Española, but he was forced to stop there to trade one of his ships, which was in poor conditions, for a better one. The Governor of La Española, Nicolas Ovando, denied him access. Columbus also predicted that a hurricane would happen on their way there, but no one believed him. The hurricane came and destroy ships going back to Spain, where Columbus' enemies like Bobadilla, Roldan and the rest of the rebels, were transported. All Columbus' enemies died, but the ship carrying money owed to Columbus arrived safely to Spain. Some believed this was Divine judgment, while others claimed, it was a course spelled by Columbus using magic arts. [35]

Columbus explored the South American continent again.[36] Later he and his crew were caught in a terrible storm and a waterspout passed between two of their ships, which was dissolved when the sailors were reciting the Gospel of John. After the storm, the ships were surrounded by sharks, which some thought were a bad omen. Columbus and his crew rested in a harbor for a few days, but once they went sailing, they were caught in several storms again. They eventually reached Veragua, where they met with the local chief who they called the Quibian. [37]

Columbus decided to return to Spain to bring supplies and reinforcements and left his brother Bartholomew in charge, to settle and conquer the land. [38]

The Quibian, in turn, sent the Spaniards to what they believed was the gold mines of Veragua, but later they learned the Quibian purposely sent them to enemy land. Later the Quibian planned to set fire to the houses of the Spaniards and kill them. Once they discovered the conspiracy, Bartholomew Columbus decided to ambush the Quibian and took some of his people as hostage. However, the Quibian escaped and attacked the Spaniards killing some and wounded others. Columbus was still in Veragua, so the survivors were able to flee the land with him. 

Columbus' ships were leaking so he was not able to reach Spain and was forced to abandon one of the ships. He tried to reach La Española, but he ended up marooned in Jamaica. [39]

Columbus sent Diego Mendez and Bartolomeo Fieschi in canoes from Jamaica to La Española to request a rescue ship for them. Columbus would not let the Spaniards disperse in Jamaica because he knew they were disrespectful and would harass the natives even if they were punished. Eventually, a mutiny broke with the Porras brothers as the leaders. The mutineers went to steal from the natives and told them to collect their pay from the Admiral and authorized them to kill him if he would not pay. Because of this, the natives stopped bringing food to Columbus and his allies at a time they were starving. Columbus told the natives God was angry at them for neglecting to bring food, which they were paying for. As a sign, God would make the moon rise inflamed with wrath in the night. Columbus was referring to an eclipse he knew was going to happen that night. When the natives saw the eclipse they begged Columbus to pray to his God to make it go away. They apologized to him and brought him food for the rest of his stay.

Columbus proposed peace with the Spanish mutineers, but they tried to kill Columbus' brother, Bartholomew, who in turn, defeated them in a fight and arrested the rest of them.

Eventually, La Española sent help to Jamaica. Initially, Governor Ovando sent a ship not to rescue Columbus, but to spy on him, out of fear, thinking Columbus might become Governor of La Española in his place. Later the Governor sent the help they needed and Columbus and the crew were rescued. When Columbus arrived in Spain, he learned the Queen had died, which caused him great sadness. His property was still confiscated, his rights and privileges suspended, even though the Spanish Government promised them back.

Columbus died one year after the Queen's death. He died sick and depressed on the day of the Ascension of Christ, May 20, 1506, after receiving the sacraments of the church. His last words were the last words of Christ on the cross: "In your hands, I commit my spirit." [40]


Appearance
According to Columbus' son, Ferdinand, Columbus was well built, tall, with a long face, cheeks somewhat high, his body neither fat or lean, he had an aquiline nose, clear eyes, he was white, tending to bright red, and blonde hair when he was young. When he reached thirty years old, his hair turned all white.
Source: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 3, page 9.

Personality
"In eating and drinking, and in the adornment of his person, he was very moderate and modest. He was affable in conversation with strangers and very pleasant to the members of his household, though with a certain gravity."

Columbus was "patient, long-suffering, prone to forgive injuries... a man of courageous soul and high aspirations, always pervaded with infinite confidence in Divine Providence and never failing in loyalty to the sovereigns whom he served."
Sources: The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 3, page 9, and Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Capítulo II. 

Columbus had been considered the best sailor of his times, by both, his contemporaries and today's modern times. Bartolome de las Casas said "...Christopher Columbus was the most outstanding sailor in the world..." Scholar and sailor Samuel Eliot Morison said "As a master mariner and navigator, Columbus was supreme in his generation."
Sources: History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 17. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XLIII, page 213.

Education
At a time of much illiteracy, Columbus knew how to read and write. He was talented in calligraphy; he knew Latin. He also studied arithmetic; he was skillful in drawing; he acquired "proficiency in geometry, geography, cosmography, astrology or astronomy, and seamanship." In addition, he could speak the languages of Genoa, Castile, and Portugal.
Source: "History of the Indies" by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 15.

Religion
Columbus was a Christian. He believed God chose him to spread Christianity to the New World. His son Ferdinand described him as “so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order. He was so great enemy of swearing and blasphemy that I give my word I never heard him utter any other oath than 'by St. Ferdinand!' " 

Bartolome de las Casas similarly stated that Columbus "confessed and received communion frequently; he recited the canonical hours like an ecclesiastic or a monk... he was most devoted to Our
Lady and to the seraphic Father, St. Francis… most jealous of the Divine honor, eager and desirous for the conversion of these" (Indigenous) "peoples, and that the faith of Jesus Christ should be everywhere spread, and singularly given and devoted to God that he might be made worthy to help in some way to win the Holy Sepulcher.” Columbus would sometimes dress like a monk.
Sources: "The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand," Chapter 3, page 9, and Historia General by Las Casas, Libro I, Capítulo II. Also, see The Book of Prophecies by Christopher Columbus.

Flat Earth and other Myths
Though most educated people believed the Earth was round, some still believed it was flat. Columbus was not trying to prove the Earth was round, but he decided to cross the ocean because the Earth is round. Columbus believed the Earth was smaller than it is, while the Spanish Council believed it was bigger. The Council believed Columbus would fail because if the Earth was bigger, and covered with water, his ships soon would run out of provisions and everyone would die. Though Columbus' opinion was contrary to the theories of most of the ancients, he was influenced by respected cosmographers who believed the Earth was smaller, like Pliny, Ptolemy, and Paolo Toscanelli, who was his contemporary. 
Sources: De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 65 and The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 6-8.

The Spanish Counsel was right that the Earth was bigger than what Columbus thought, but Columbus was right that he could reach the other side in a short period of time, as he didNeither Columbus, nor the Spanish Council, or the ancient cosmographers of the past, knew there was a continent between Europe and Asia. Maps back then would end with Thule. No one would dare to pass it. Not even the Vikings. The reason why Viking Leif Erikson reached Vinland, in North America, was because a storm took him there by accident. Neither he, nor his companions, knew where they were, and probably thought they were still somewhere in the Arctic or Europe. 
Sources: The Saga of Eirik the Red, Chapter "Eirik's family, and his son Leif's discovery of Vinland," pages 23, 24, and Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XVI, page 90.

However, the Council believed in a number of myths in regards to the Earth, like, "the world was infinite and that would be impossible to reach the eastern limits even after years of sailing… They quoted... the ancient doubt as to whether the ocean was navigable... or in the event it was navigable, whether one was likely to find land on the other side; but if there were land, it was unlikely it was inhabited; but if it were uninhabited, it was unlikely that one could set out to find it… Those who professed to know more... maintained that only a small body of land in the southern hemisphere was left uncovered because the rest was under water; therefore, it was possible to sail only along coast lines… And they said more: sailing straight West, as Columbus planned, would mean one could never return, for supposing the world were round, going West was sinking downhill out of the hemisphere described by Ptolemy; it would be necessary to return uphill, which is something ships cannot do…” 
Source: History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 29, pages 26-28.

Discovery
The word "Discover" never meant “the first person to find desolate land” in Columbus’ historical context. Rather it means Columbus discovered a continent people from the Old World did not know existed back then. The New World was not on the maps until Columbus had discovered it. To read more in-depth about the subject, please click here: http://www.officialchristophercolumbus.com/2018/08/did-columbus-discover-america-what-does.html

Legacy 
History revisionists usually claim Columbus' legacy is either mixed or negative because of the interaction of natives and Europeans in regards to war, conquest, and slavery. What revisionists won't tell you is that war, conquest, and slavery were the rule of the day and were practiced by Indigenous people as well, as were cannibalism and human sacrifice.


Columbus' legacy is positive. Today we are here in the New World because of him. He discovered a continent the Old World did not know existed. Columbus was the one who brought two different worlds back together after hundreds of years of lost communication. Columbus also imported Christianity, the Judeo-Christian values and the ideas of Western Civilization rooted in Greek democracy and Roman law. It is men of faith, reason, and Western values who soon brought us freedom of worship, freedom of expression and human rights. Before Columbus, slavery was universal. Slavery was practiced for thousands of years before Columbus, but it was abolished 363 years after Columbus' discovery because of the values he brought here. Not to mention the advancement of science and medicine, curing or treating the diseases that were plaguing both sides of the world for millennia.  


References

1. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand translated by Benjamin Keen, Chapter 1.

2. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapters I, page 17.

3. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter II, page 11.

4. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter II, page 7.

5. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XX, page 103. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Chapter 4, Book One, page 19.

6. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XXXVII, page 187.

7. Admiral of the Ocean Sea by Morison, Chapter IV, page 38. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter XXXVII, page 187.

8. De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 57. Columbus' Journal (translated by John Cummins), Prologue, page 81.

9. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 3, page 15; De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book I, page 57; Historia de los Reyes Católicos, Andrés Bernáldez, Tomo I, Capítulo CXVIII, página 269; Historia General, Herrera, Década I, Libro I, Capítulo VII, página 11; Historia General y Natural Oviedo, Capítulo II, página 12. Also, Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Notes to Chapter 1 His Birth: Fables, Disputes and Documents, page 223. 1985.

10. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 5, pages 13-14. Christopher Columbus The Grand Design by Taviani, Chapter X, page 60.

11. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 11, pages 35-37. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas, Chapter 29, pages 24-25.

12. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 12, pages 37-40. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas, Chapter 29, pages 24-31.

13. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 13-15.

14. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 16-17.

15. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 18.

16. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 20.

17. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 22. Columbus Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492.

18. Historia General de las Indias por López de Gomera, Tomo I, Capitulo XVI, pagina 43. (Calpe Madrid 1922). The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 26, page 66.

19. Columbus Journal, Thursday, October 11, 1492.

20. Columbus Journal, October 15,  November 29, December 3, 12, 13, 16, 1492.

21. Columbus Journal, October 14, 1492. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 25.

22. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 30, page 74.

23. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 34, page 85. Columbus Journal, Tuesday, December 25, 1492.

24. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 35, page 87.

25. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 36-42. History of the Indies by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 78, pages 37-40.

26. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 43-50.

27. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 51-53.

28. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 54-61.

29. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 63.

30. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 65.

31. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 66.

32. Narrative of the Voyage which Don Christopher Columbus made the third time that he came to the Indies, when he discovered terra firma, as he sent it to their Majesties from the Island of Hispaniola, from Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, page 134. and 141. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 68-73.

33. Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/aug/07/books.spain

34. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 74-87. Columbus sending secret letters source: Historia de las Indias por Las Casas, Libro I, Tomo II, Capitulo CLIX, pagina 360.

35. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 88.

36. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 89-93.

37. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 94.

38. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 95.

39. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 96-100.

40. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapters 101-108.

Bibliography and Primary Sources

1. The Voyage of Christopher Columbus, Columbus’ Own Journal of Discovery. Newly Restored and Translated by John Cummins. St. Martin’s Press New York, 1992.

2. Writings of Christopher Columbus, Descriptive of the Discovery and Occupation of the New World. Charles L. Webster & Co. New York, 1890.

3. The Book of Prophecies Edited by Christopher Columbus. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1997.

4. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand. Translated and Annotated by Benjamin Keen. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey 1992.

5. De Orbe Novo. The Eight Decades of Peter Martyr D'Anghiera. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London The Kníckerbocker Press, 1912.

6. History of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas. Translated and Edited by Andree M. Collard. Harper Torchbooks Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Evanston, and London, 1971.

7. Historia de las Indias, Escrita por Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Obispo de Chiapa, Imprenta de Miguel Ginesta, 1875.

8. Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos, en las Islas, y Tierra-Firme de el Mar Oceano. Escrita por Antonio de Herrera.

9. Historia de los Reyes Católicos, Crónica inédita del siglo XV, por El Bachiller Andrés Bernáldez. Tomo I. Imprenta y librería de D. José Alaria Zamora, 1856.

10. Historia General y Natural de las Indias, Isla y Tierra-Firme del Mar Océano por El Capitán Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. Primer Cronista del Nuevo Mundo. Imprenta de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1851.

#ChristopherColumbusBiography

Monday, August 27, 2018

Wikipedia vs. Columbus


What is wrong with Wikipedia's biography on Columbus? (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus)

First, let me start with what they've got right:

Though long and boring, Columbus' biography on Wikipedia has a lot of scholarly accurate information there. However, it also has the usual revisionist innuendos and inaccuracies. 

For example, Wikipedia claims Columbus "founded the transatlantic slave trade." Yet, when you click the word/link "transatlantic slave trade" it says the "Portuguese were the first to engage in the Atlantic slave trade... In 1526, they completed the first transatlantic slave." 

Columbus was serving Spain, not Portugal. He was out of Office in 1499 and dead by 1506. Wikipedia numbers and assumptions won't match! If what they are trying to say is that Columbus sent slaves (enemy combatants) from the New World to the Old World, then that is what they should say.

Another thing is that Columbus did not invent slavery, nor the slave trade and slavery was practiced by natives too. The slaves he sent to Spain were defeated enemy combatants, and according to his own letters, he always intended to give them back their freedom in a few years. Wikipedia did not mention that.
Source: Historia de las Indias, Libro II, Tomo III, Capitulo XXXVII, página 190.

Some time ago Wikipedia used to claim Columbus was running some kind of child sex slavery ring. Apparently, they removed it, but now it resurfaces under "sexual slavery." If they take the time to read the letter they quoted as evidence of the claim, they will see there is nothing about sex with children in it. Rather, in the letter, Columbus was condemning the abuses of the Spaniards toward the natives. 

About the "Accusations of Tyranny" section, Wikipedia forgot to mention the accusations were false. 

The "Second Voyage" section gleefully mentions the rape of a native girl by Michele de Cuneo that he claimed Columbus gave her. Strangely enough, Wikipedia did not mention that the same letter says Columbus was rescuing Tainos from the Caribs, who were terrorizing the islands with kidnappings, rape, murder, and cannibalism. To read more about Cuneo's rape argument, click here: http://www.officialchristophercolumbus.com/2018/08/did-columbus-rape-anyone-michele-de.html

Wikipedia also demonstrates they don't know what the word "Discover" means and keep repeating the usual fallacies, distortions and revisions propagandists keep repeating.

I have tried to edit Wikipedia myself, but someone put some kind of virtual "lock" and won't let me correct the propaganda there. Since there is nothing I can do to edit Wikipedia, I decided to write a more accurate biography of Columbus right here: http://www.officialchristophercolumbus.com/2018/07/christopher-columbus-biography.html

#WikipediaDebunked




Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Did Columbus Discover America? What Does "Columbus Discovered America" Means?

Here is the answer from my book "Christopher Columbus The Hero" Chapter 3:

Chapter 3. Discover, not “Discover”

The traditional story of Christopher Columbus tells us that he discovered America. However, revisionists want to discredit Columbus, not only with lies and innuendo but even with semantics! They want us to spell the word discover in quotes. When speaking about Columbus, in 2017, The Encyclopedia Britannica website spelled the words discoverer and discovery in quotations:

Columbus “has long been called the 'discoverer' of the New World, although Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries earlier… According to the older understanding, the 'discovery' of the Americas was a great triumph, one in which Columbus played the part of hero in accomplishing the four voyages.” [1]

But when talking about Amerigo Vespucci, the same Encyclopedia Britannica website spelled the words discovered, discovery, and discoverer without quotations: Amerigo Vespucci “is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River… The voyage of 1501–02 is of fundamental importance in the history of geographic discovery in that Vespucci himself, and scholars as well became convinced that the newly discovered lands were not part of Asia but a 'New World' … the newly discovered world be named 'ab Americo Inventore… quasi Americi terram sive Americam' ('from Amerigo the discoverer… as if it were the land of Americus or America').” [2]

Bias? I think so.

In 2016, MTV News said that Christopher Columbus “didn't discover America,” that “he landed in the Caribbean and never actually set foot in what is now American soil,” and that “the Vikings landed in America almost 500 years before Columbus.” [3] But, in the next sentence, the host blamed Columbus for mistreating native Americans. Question: How could Columbus mistreat native AMERICANS, when, according to MTV News, he never discovered the continent or “set foot in what is now American soil”? Contradiction? I think so. And if natives lived on the continent before the Vikings, then by the same faulty logic they didn't discover America either! In addition, Columbus indeed discovered the South American part of the continent, even though he never reached North America or settled in South America. So, the question is, how can Columbus be responsible for any conflicts in places he never reached, or places he never discovered or settled?

The deal is, there is a BIG, BIG, misunderstanding with the word discover. The word discover never meant “the first person to find desolate land” in Columbus’ historical context. The fact that Columbus was looking for a straight route to the Asian continent for trade, and to send missionaries to the “Great Khan,” meant that he was looking for inhabited land.

From Columbus’ own Journal:

“In that same month, on the information which I had given Your Majesties about the lands of India and a ruler known as the Great Khan (which means in Spanish 'King of Kings').”

Note: A ruler rules over people! Columbus continued:

“... Your Majesties... send me, Christopher Columbus, to those lands of India to meet their rulers and to see the towns and lands and their distribution, and all other things, and to find
out in what manner they might be converted to our Holy Faith; and you ordered me not to go eastward by land, as is customary, but to take my course westward, where, so far as we know, no man has travelled before today.”
“The Voyage of Christopher Columbus” translated by John Cummins, Prologue, page 81.

So you see, Columbus was looking for land already populated. This is what primary historical source, Bartolome de las Casas, wrote: “I understand that when he tried to find a Christian Prince to sponsor him, he was already sure that he would discover new lands and peoples… Columbus did not name it the Indies because it had already been discovered before, but because it was the eastern part of India ultra Gangem which, going East, was to the west of us since the world is round. No cosmographer had ever marked out the boundaries of India except those of the ocean.”
“History of the Indies” by Las Casas, Book One, Chapter 5, pages 20-21. 

“India” was another word for Asia in Columbus’ time. Some people might be offended that Columbus called the natives, “Indians,” when they were not in “India,” or Asia; but Columbus might not be as wrong, as some may think, because those who were living in America before Columbus, somehow came here from “India,” or the Asian continent. I wonder why some people might be offended with Columbus calling the natives, “Indians,” but they are okay with the name, “Americans,” when that was not the name of the continent either! The name “America” came as a consequence of Co-lumbus’ discoveries, and Amerigo Vespucci (who the name “America” came from) was a contemporary of Columbus too.

All that Columbus wanted was to go straight from Spain to Asia, instead of sailing around Africa, like the Europeans were doing. That's basic children’s school history. I can't believe people forgot about that one. Columbus knew Asian land was already discovered by Asians, and he knew Europeans had traded there, which also means he was not looking to be the first European to reach India or Asia because again, he already knew Europeans had reached it. He was inspired by the travels of Marco Polo, so he knew a European already had reached China, in Asia. [4] So, those who bring Vikings to the conversation, don't know or understand what the word discover, or its historical context, means.

That's why it doesn't matter if Columbus knew about the Vikings reaching North America or not, because Columbus was aiming South, toward India, but also with the purpose of exploring the South Asian lands and islands Europeans had not reached yet, where, like Las Casas said, “no cosmographer had ever marked out the boundaries.” But of course, Columbus was not in South Asia, but in the Caribbean, and later on in South America. This makes him the first European to reach some of those places at such time.

So, what did Columbus discover?

1. Columbus discovered and proved, that one can sail safely and straight from Spain to the other side.
2. Because of him, and him alone, it was discovered later, that they were on another continent, and not in Asia.
3. Columbus is the one who brought two different worlds back together, after hundreds of years of lost communication.
4. He and those who follow after him discovered people and other lands Europe didn't know about for centuries.
5. Columbus was also the first European to explore the Caribbean, and probably the first European to reach Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Venezuela.

To those of you who still insist Columbus didn't discover anything, who want to discredit Columbus accomplishments by playing semantic games blended with ignorance, to those of you who say, the native Americans were the ones who discovered America, because they were here first, I want to ask you the following questions:

1. What was the name of the native person who reached American land first?
2. What native tribe discovered America?
3. What year?
4. When?
5. How did they get there?
6. What country did they come from?
7. Where did they settle first? North, South or Central America?

The fact is we don't know the answers to those questions, but we know the answers to the same questions when we are talking about Christopher Columbus. I also want to make a note about the Vikings: The Vikings sailed from Iceland and Greenland, which are very close to North America, while Columbus sailed straight west from Spain to America, which was farther and something people would not have dared to do back in those days. In fact, Columbus’ sailors were in tears, scared to death, as they left Spain into the unknown. They thought they were all going to die.
See “The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand,” Chapter 18, page 48.

The Vikings quickly left America, not knowing they were on another continent. But let me tell you something, if the Vikings would have stayed there, impacting history like Columbus did, I would bet you, we would still be hearing the same complaints about the Vikings, as we hear today about Columbus. Remember, the Vikings were white, which is a crime to some revisionists; they also practiced conquest, war, raids, slavery, and rape; but the worst “crime” of all, was that the Viking who reached America, Leif Erikson, was a Christian! [5] Can you imagine the reaction revisionists might get once they find out this! They might stop bragging that the Vikings were the first doing anything! They might get a heart attack or something! They hate that “crime” more than any other. Like I said before, we would be still hearing the same objection today! On the other hand, I don't know why some people want to magnify the Vikings’ discoveries, which had no impact historically, and diminish Columbus’ discoveries, which have an actual historical impact.

In the words of Thomas A. Bowden: “Columbus did discover America--- for Europe. Prior to 1492, Europeans lived in total ignorance of the Western hemisphere and the people who inhabited it. Columbus and those who follow him lift that cover of ignorance--- they 'dis-covered' America. Once this knowledge had kindled Europe’s interest in the New World, European colonists came in growing numbers, bringing with them the wisdom of Western civilization in a vast westward movement, laying the groundwork for mankind's greatest political and economic achievement, the United States of America. Seen in this light, Columbus’s voyage is the one that truly made a difference historically.” [6]

And

“... it is significant that one never hears condemnation of the Vikings, or the Chinese, Japanese, Irish, or Welsh, or any other purported pre-Columbian voyagers, for having inaugurated centuries of 'ecocide' and genocide. By focusing all their attention on Columbus, his enemies confess their agreement that his voyage was the only one that mattered.” [7]

I would add to that, that we are here in the New World today, BECAUSE of Columbus and Columbus alone. Not because of natives, Vikings or anyone else, but because of Christopher Columbus.

Endnotes:
1.Encyclopedia Britannica: Christopher Columbus Italian Explorer. Written by: Valerie I.J. Flint. Last Updated 1-14-2016.
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Christopher-Columbus
2.Encyclopedia Britannica: Amerigo Vespucci, Italian Navigator, Written by: Roberto Almagià. Last Updated: 10-17-2011.
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amerigo-Vespucci
3.MTV News: “Columbus Was a Genocidal Rapist | Decoded |MTV News” Published on Oct 9, 2015.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UbG7VbebC_Y
4.“The Voyage of Christopher Columbus,” by John Cummins, Introduction, “The Orient and the Ocean Sea,” page 9.
5.“The Saga of Erik the Red,” Chapter “Eirik's family, and his son Leif's discovery of Vinland,” pages 23-27. Abela Publishing, London 2010
6.“The Enemies of Christopher Columbus” by Thomas A. Bow- den, page 27.
7.“The Enemies of Christopher Columbus” by Thomas A. Bowden, page 28.


Buy "Christopher Columbus The Hero" Book here

Wednesday, August 8, 2018

Did Columbus Rape Anyone? The Michele de Cuneo's Letter


Did Columbus rape anyone or give women away for that purpose? To answer the question I used excerpts from my book Christopher Columbus The Hero, Chapter 30 with some additions, modifications, and edits specifically designed for this article:

According to a letter Cuneo wrote to a friend, he admitted to raping a native girl that was supposedly given to him from Columbus. Revisionists love Michele de Cuneo’s rape story because, in their view, Columbus is guilty by association. This Cuneo’s rape story is in many of Columbus’ biographies out there, as if Cuneo was Columbus himself, or his clone; or as if Columbus knew what his friend did and approved or applauded the assault!

Columbus wasn’t in the bedroom with his friend to know what he did. The reason why we know today Cuneo’s rape story is because he wrote about it in a personal letter that became public centuries later in 1885. This is assuming the letter is authentic in its entirety, since some scholars challenged it in the past due to “inconsistencies in style.” [1] Today it is accepted as genuine because it passed the test of paleography in the 19th-century. The original letter doesn’t exist and what we have today is a copy made around 1511. Of course, that doesn’t mean it’s a fake, but it doesn’t mean it’s all true either. The fact is since Columbus became famous many forged letters, or authentic ones containing false information, have come to surface.

So let's look at some of the inconsistencies and falsehoods in Cuneo’s letter:  

He started the letter with, “In the name of Jesus and of His Glorious Mother Mary,” but a few pages later he rapes a native girl. Cuneo seems to contradict himself as well when he said, “While I was in the boat I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me.” Which is true? That Cuneo “captured” her, or that the Lord Admiral “gave” her to him? 

Cuneo claimed he took the Carib girl he raped to his cabin, where she screamed at the top of her lungs after he beat her for initially denying him intercourse. [2] If that is so, how come no one else heard the screaming? Can you imagine the enemies of Columbus if they have heard a native woman screaming because Columbus gave her away to be raped? Columbus’ enemies would have a field day with such an accusation! 

Another falsehood by Cuneo is the existence of temples in the Caribbean, when there were none. 

There were also two respectable persons who were in the same second voyage when the alleged rape happened. One was a doctor named Doctor Diego Álvarez Chanca, and the other was Guillermo Coma of Aragon. Neither Dr. Chanca, Guillermo de Coma, and I would add Ferdinand Columbus, Peter Martyr, Las Casas, Herrera, or any other credible source ever mentioned that Columbus was raping or giving women away to be raped. [3] 

Cuneo also said that when the native girl yielded to him, “she seemed to have been brought up in a school of harlots.” That means Cuneo knew what such a “school” would be like. So here we are taking the words of a cheater, a gossip and a rapist as “gospel.” 

During this second voyage, Columbus kept the Spaniards from native women. Strangely enough, those who hated Columbus, accused him of everything, except giving women away to be raped. In fact, one of the complaints against Columbus and his brothers by Roldán and his rebels (during the third voyage) was that they “made them observe the three monastic vows;” that is poverty, chastity, and obedience. [4] 

Columbus sent letters to the Spanish kings reporting that Roldán and his accomplices were harassing the native women. Historia de las Indias by Las Casas, Libro I, Tomo II, Capítulo CLIX, pp. 360-361. 

That was the timeline when Columbus called these Spanish rebels, “debauchees, profligates, thieves, seducers, ravishers, vagabonds,” etc. De Orbe Novo by Peter Martyr, The First Decade, Book VII, p. 142.

“Debauchees” means “a person addicted to excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures; one given to debauchery.” The word “profligate” means “utterly and shamelessly immoral or dissipated; thoroughly dissolute.” “Ravisher” means “rapist.” [5]

It is clear Columbus wasn't pleased with the Spaniards, and he wasn't giving them women. It's also clear Columbus was not okay with rape. 

It is ironic how revisionists highlighted, and magnified Michele de Cuneo’s rape story, but avoided the parts in the very same letter where he confirmed that the Caribs depopulated islands with raids, slavery, rapes, murder, and cannibalism. Cuneo also tells us that, in the meantime, Columbus was rescuing the Taínos from being kidnapped and raped by the Caribs. This is what he wrote: 

“In that island we took twelve very beautiful and very fat women from 15 to 16 years old, together with two boys of the same age. These had the genital organ cut to the belly; and this we thought had been done in order to prevent them from meddling with their wives or maybe to fatten them up and later eat them… there were three or four Carib men with two Carib women and two Indian slaves, of whom (that is the way the Caribs treat their other neighbors in those other islands), they had recently cut the genital organ to the belly, so that they were still sore.” [6] 

Where is the outrage against these kidnappings and castrations? Guillermo de Coma, who was on the same voyage as Cuneo, confirmed the rape raids by the Caribs in a letter:

“They hand over the female captives as slaves to their womenfolk, or make use of them to satisfy their lust. Children borne by the captured women are eaten like the captives.” [7] 

Any outrage against this? Why is that some websites are so willing to stain Columbus’ reputation with innuendos, by using selected portions of Cuneo’s letter, but skip the parts where Cuneo reported the natives were doing the same things revisionists pretend they lament? 

In addition, Cuneo's description of the natives was not positive either. He said the natives ate poisonous beasts, insects, reptiles, dogs, snakes, lizards, spiders, etc. According to him, the natives would cut their own father’s head off and then cook it, as told by their idols, if the father was sick with no hope to recuperate. The first woman to enter their temple would have sex with their “holy man.” They would have sex anywhere openly, with anyone, except with brothers and sisters; they were sodomites; they were cold-blooded people; they would live short lives, etc. [8] 

Should we take that as “gospel” too? In fact, the description of the natives above is another reason why I’ve been skeptical with Cuneo’s account. Whereas every primary source made distinction from Caribs and Taínos, Cuneo painted them all with the same broad brush. 

Samuel Eliot Morison, who translated Cuneo’s letter into English says Cuneo was not like Columbus or the “solem Spaniards who wrote on the early voyages.” Morison admitted Cuneo’s narrative is “somewhat confused.” 

Anyone reading Columbus’ accounts can clearly see that Columbus was very protective toward the native women. It is also clear that the rapists in Cuneo’s account, by his own admission, were him and the Caribs, and not Columbus. 

I’m not saying Cuneo’s account is a hoax, but I would not be surprised if the future reveals it to be one. I’m just saying there are a lot of problems with his side of the story and his account is unreliable. 


Notes:

1. Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus by Morison, p. 209.

2. Ibid, p. 212.

3. Ibid, p. 210 and 214 note 1.

4. The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, Chapter 74, p. 192. Also, Note # 2 from Chapter 74, p. 301.

5. Diccionary.com

6. Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus by Morison, pp. 211-212.

7. Ibid, Syllacio's Letter to Duke of Milan, p. 236.

8. Ibid, pp. 219-220.







#MicheleDeCuneoRape